Documents


DPRK's Socialist Constitution (Full Text)

(ED: Here is an unofficial translation of the amended and supplemented socialist constitution of the DPRK which was adopted on Sept. 5 by the first session of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly.)
Preface Chapter1 Politics
Chapter2 Economy
Chapter3 Culture
Chapter4 National Defense
Chapter5 Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens
Chapter6 The Structure of State
Chapter7 National Emblem, Flag, National Anthem and Capital


Preface

The Democratic People¡¯s Republic of Korea is a socialist fatherland of Juche which embodies the idea of and guidance by the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung is the founder of the DPRK and the socialist Korea.
Comrade Kim Il Sung founded the immortal Juche idea, organized and guided an anti-Japanese revolutionary struggle under its banner, created revolutionary tradition, attained the historical cause of the national liberation, and founded the DPRK, built up a solid basis of construction of a sovereign and independent state in the fields of politics, economy, culture and military, and founded the DPRK.
Comrade Kim Il Sung put forward an independent revolutionary line, wisely guided the social revolution and construction at various levels, strengthened and developed the Republic into a people-centered socialist country and a socialist state of independence, self-sustenance, and self-defense.
Comrade Kim Il Sung clarified the fundamental principle of State building and activities, established the most superior state social system and political method, and social management system and method, and provided a firm basis for the prosperous and powerful socialist fatherland and the continuation of the task of completing the Juche revolutionary cause.
Comrade Kim Il Sung regarded believing in the people as in heaven as his motto, was always with the people, devoted his whole life to them, took care of and guided them with a noble politics of benevolence, and turned the whole society into one big and united family.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung is the sun of the nation and the lodestar of the reunification of the fatherland. Comrade Kim Il Sung set the reunification of the country as the nations supreme task, and devoted all his work and endeavors entirely to its realization.
Comrade Kim Il Sung, while turning the Republic into a mighty fortress for national reunification, indicated fundamental principles and methods for national reunification, developed the national reunification movement into a pan-national movement, and opened up a way for that cause, to be attained by the united strength of the entire nation.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung made clear the fundamental idea of the Republic¡¯s external policy, expanded and developed diplomatic relations on this basis, and heightened the international prestige of the Republic. Comrade Kim Il Sung as a veteran world political leader, hew out a new era of independence, vigorously worked for the reinforcement and development of the socialist movement and the nonaligned movement, and for world peace and friendship between peoples, and made an immortal contribution to the mankind's independent cause.
Comrade Kim Il Sung was a genius ideological theoretician and a genius art leader, an ever-victorious, iron-willed brilliant commander, a great revolutionary and politician, and a great human being.
Comrade Kim Il Sung's great idea and achievements in leadership are the eternal treasures of the nation and a fundamental guarantee for the prosperity and efflorescence of the DPRK.
The DPRK and the entire Korean people will uphold the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung as the eternal President of the Republic, defend and carry forward his ideas and exploits and complete the Juche revolution under the leadership of the Workers Party of Korea.
The DPRK Socialist Constitution is a Kim Il Sung constitution which legally embodies Comrade Kim Il Sung¡¯s Juche state construction ideology and achievements.

Chapter 1 Politics

Article 1
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people.
Article 2
The DPRK is a revolutionary power which has inherited brilliant traditions formed during the glorious revolutionary struggle against the imperialist aggressors, in the struggle to achieve the liberation of the homeland and the freedom and well-being of the people.
Article 3
The DPRK is guided in its activities by the Juche idea, a world outlook centered on people, a revolutionary ideology for achieving the independence of the masses of people.
Article 4
The sovereignty of the DPRK resides in the workers, peasants, working intellectuals and all other working people.
The working people exercise power through their representative organs -- the Supreme Peoples Assembly and local peoples assemblies at all levels.
Article 5
All the State organs in the DPRK are formed and function on the principle of democratic centralism.
Article 6
The organs of State power at all levels, from the county Peoples Assembly to the SPA, are elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Article 7
Deputies to the organs of State power at all levels have close ties with their constituents and are accountable to them for their work.
The electors may recall the deputies they have elected if the latter are not to be trusted.
Article 8
The social system of the DPRK is a people-centered system under which the working people are masters of everything, and everything in society serves the working people.
The State shall defend and protect the interests of the workers, peasants and working intellectuals who have been freed from exploitation and oppression and become masters of the State and society.
Article 9
The DPRK shall strive to achieve the complete victory of socialism in the northern half of Korea by strengthening the peoples power and vigorously performing the three revolutions -- the ideological, cultural and technical -- and reunify the country on the principle of independence, peaceful reunification and great national unity.
Article 10
The DPRK bases itself on the political and ideological unity of the entire people based on the worker-peasant alliance in which the working class plays a leading role.
The State strengthens the ideological revolution and revolutionizes and working-classizes all the social members, and binds the whole society in a united group, linked up with comradeship.
Article 11
The DPRK shall conduct all activities under the leadership of the Workers Party of Korea.
Article 12
The State shall adhere to the class line, strengthen the dictatorship of peoples democracy and firmly defend the peoples power and socialist system against all subversive acts of hostile elements at home and abroad.
Article 13
The State shall implement the mass line and apply the Chongsanri spirit and Chongsanri method to all its activities, the spirit and method by which superiors assist their subordinates, mix with the masses to find solutions to problems and rouse them to conscious enthusiasm preferentially through political work, with people.
Article 14
The State shall powerfully conduct the Three- Revolution Red Flag Movement and other mass movements and accelerate the building of socialism to the maximum.
Article 15
The DPRK shall champion the democratic, national rights of Koreans overseas and their rights recognized by the international law.
Article 16
The DPRK shall guarantee the legal rights and interests of foreigners in its region.
Article 17
Independence, peace, and solidarity are the basic ideals of the foreign policy and the principles of external activities of the DPRK.
The State shall establish diplomatic as well as political, economic and cultural relations with all friendly countries, on principles of complete equality, independence, mutual respect, noninterference in each other¡¯s affairs and mutual benefit.
The State shall promote unity with the world public defending peoples who oppose all forms of aggression and interference and fight for their countries¡¯independence and national and class emancipation.
Article 18
The law of the DPRK reflects the wishes and interests of the working people and is a basic instrument for State administration.
Respect for the law and its strict adherence and execution is the duty of all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens.
The State shall perfect the system of socialist law and promote the socialist law-abiding life.

Chapter 2 Economy

Article 19
The DPRK relies on the socialist production relations and on the foundation of an independent national economy.
Article 20
In the DPRK, the means of production are owned only by the State and social cooperative organizations.
Article 21
The property of the State belongs to the entire people.
There is no limit to the property which the State can own.
Only the State possesses all the natural resources, railways, airports, transportation, communication organs and major factories, enterprises, ports and banks.
The State shall guarantee giving priority to the growth of its property which plays a leading role in the development of the national economy.
Article 22
The property of social cooperative organizations belongs to the collective property of working people within the organizations concerned.
Social cooperative organizations can possess such property as land, agricultural machinery, ships, medium-small sized factories and enterprises.
The State shall protect the property of social cooperative organizations.
Article 23
The State shall enhance the ideological consciousness and the technical and cultural level of the peasants, increase the role of the property of the entire people in leading the cooperative property so as to combine the two forms of property systematically, shall consolidate and develop the socialist cooperative economic system by improving the guidance and management of the cooperative economy and gradually transform the property of cooperative organizations into the property of the people as a whole based on the voluntary will of all their members.
Article 24
Private property is confirmed to property meeting the simple and individual aims of the citizen. Private property consists of socialist distributions of the result of labor and additional benefits of the State and society.
The products of individual sideline activities including those from the kitchen gardens of cooperative farmers and income from other legal economic activities shall also belong to private property.
The State shall protect private property and guarantee its legal inheritance.
Article 25
The DPRK regards the steady improvement of the material and cultural standards of the people as the supreme principle of its activities.
The constantly-increasing material wealth of society in our country, where taxes have been abolished, is used entirely for promoting the well-being of the working people.
The State shall provide all working people with every condition for obtaining food, clothing and housing.
Article 26
The independent national economy of the DPRK is a solid foundation for the people's happy socialist life and for the prosperity of the fatherland.
The State, holding fast to the line of building an independent national economy, shall accelerate Juche-orientation, modernization and scientific sophistication of the national economy, develop the national economy into a highly developed Juche-oriented one, strive to build a solid material and technical foundation commensurate with a complete socialist society.
Article 27
The technical revolution is vital to the development of the socialist economy.
The State shall perform all economic activities by giving top priority to solving the problem of technical development, push vigorously ahead with a mass technical revolution movement by accelerating scientific and technical development and the technical innovation of the national economy, free the working masses from backbreaking labor and narrow down the differences between physical and mental labor.
Article 28
The State shall accelerate the technical revolution in the rural areas in order to eliminate differences between urban and rural areas, and class distinctions between the working class and the peasantry, industrialize and modernize agriculture, strengthen the guidance and assistance to rural areas by enhancing the role of the county.
The State shall undertake, at its own expense, the building of production facilities for the cooperative farms and modern houses in the countryside.
Article 29
Socialism and Communism are built by the creative labor of the working masses.
In the DPRK, labor is an independent and creative work of the working masses, who have been freed from exploitation and suppression.
The State renders the labor of our working people, who do not worry about unemployment, more joyful and worthwhile, so that they willingly work with enthusiasm and creativeness for society, organizations and for themselves.
Article 30
The daily working hours of the working masses are eight hours.
The State will decide to shorten the daily working hours depending on the hardness and special conditions of labor.
The State shall organize labor effectively, strengthen labor rules and take fully utilize labor s working hours.
Article 31
In the DPRK, the minimum working age is 16 years old.
The State shall prohibit child labor under the stipulated working age.
Article 32
The State shall firmly adhere to the principle of properly combining political guidance with economic and technical guidance, the unified guidance of the State with the creativity of each unit, monolithic leadership with democracy, political and moral incentives with material incentives in the guidance and management of the socialist economy.
Article 33
The State shall guide and manage the national economy according to the Taean Work System, which is a socialist economic management form whereby the economy is operated and managed in a scientific and rational way depending on the collective power of the producing masses, and according to the agricultural guidance system whereby agricultural management is conducted by industrial methods.
The State shall introduce a cost accounting system in the economic management according to the demand of the Taean work system, and utilize such economic levers as prime costs, prices and profits.
Article 34
The national economy of the DPRK is a planned economy.
The State shall balance a proportion between accumulation and consumption properly, accelerate the economic construction, continue to raise peoples living standard and formulate and implement national economic development plans in order to strengthen the national defense capability.
The State shall formulate unified and detailed plans and guarantee a high rate production growth and a balanced development of the national economy.
Article 35
The DPRK shall compile and implement the State budget along with the national economic development plan.
The State will intensify campaigns for increased production and expanded economy, carry out financial regulations strictly, increase the States savings, and expand and develop the socialist property.
Article 36
In the DPRK, the State and social cooperative organizations shall conduct foreign trade activities. The State shall develop foreign trade on the principles of complete equality and mutual benefit. Article 37
The State shall encourage institutions, enterprises or associations of the DPRK to establish and operate equity and contractual joint venture enterprises with corporations or individuals of foreign countries within a special economic zone.
Article 38
The State shall pursue a tariff policy with the aim of protecting the independent national economy.

Chapter 3 Culture

Article 39
Socialist culture, which is flourishing and developing in the DPRK, contributes to the improvement of the creative ability of the working people and to meeting their sound cultural and aesthetic demands.
Article 40
The DPRK shall, by carrying out a thorough cultural revolution, train the working people to be builders of socialism and communism equipped with a profound knowledge of nature and society and a high level of culture and technology, thus making the whole of society intellectual.
Article 41
The DPRK shall develop a truly popular, revolutionary culture which serves the socialist working people.
In building a socialist national culture, the State shall oppose the cultural infiltration of imperialism and any tendency to return to the past, protect its national cultural heritage, and develop it in keeping with the existing socialist situation.
Article 42
The State shall eliminate the way of life inherited from the outmoded society and establish a new socialist way of life in every sphere.
Article 43
The State shall put the principles of socialist education into practice and raise the new generation to be steadfast revolutionaries who will fight for society and the people, to be people of a new communist type who are knowledgeable, morally sound and physically healthy.
Article 44
The State shall give precedence to public education and the training of cadres for the nation and combine general education with technological education, and education with productive labor.
Article 45
The State shall develop universal compulsory 11-year education which includes a compulsory one-year preschool education at a high level in accordance with the trend of modern science and technology and the practical requirements of socialist construction.
Article 46
The State shall train competent technicians and experts by enhancing the regular educational system as well as different forms of study while working, and by improving the scientific and theoretical levels of technical education and education on social science and basic science.
Article 47
The State shall provide education to all pupils and students free of charge and grant allowances to students of universities and colleges.
Article 48
The State shall strengthen social education and provide the working people with all available conditions for study.
Article 49
The State shall maintain all children of preschool age in creches and kindergartens at State and public expense.
Article 50
The State shall establish Juche in scientific research, introduce advanced science and technology in every possible way, open up new areas of science and technology and raise the country's science and technology to the world level.
Article 51
The State shall draw up a proper plan for scientific research work, consolidate creative cooperation between scientists, specialists and producer masses.
Article 52
The State shall develop a Juche-oriented, revolutionary literature and art, national in form and socialist in content.
The State shall develop a Juche-oriented, revolutionary literature and art, national in form and socialist in content.
The State shall encourage creative workers and artists to produce works of high ideological and artistic value and enlist the working masses widely in literary and artistic activity.
Article 53
The State shall provide sufficient modern cultural facilities to meet the demands of the people who want to continually improve themselves, both mentally and physically, so that the working people may enjoy a socialist cultured, aesthetic life to their hearts' content.
Article 54
The State shall safeguard our language from all attempts to obliterate it and shall develop it to meet present-day needs.
Article 55
The State shall popularize physical culture and make it in a habit of people's life to make people fully prepared for labor and national defense; and develop physical technique conforming to the actual situation of our country and trends in the development of modern physical technique.
Article 56
The State shallconsolidate and develop the system of universal free medical service, and consolidates the section doctor system and the system of preventive medicine to protect people's life and improve working people's health.
Article 57
The State shall adopt measures to protect the environment in preference to production, preserve and promote the natural environment and prevent environmental pollution so as to provide the people with a hygienic environment and working conditions.

Chapter 4 National Defense

Article 58
The Democratic People's Republic of K orea rests on the people's nationwide defence system.
Article 59
The mission of the armed forces of the DPRK is to safeguard the interests of the working people, to defend the socialist system and the gains of the revolution from aggression and to protect the freedom, independence and peace of the country.
Article 60
The State shall implement the line of self-reliant defence, the import of which is to arm the entire people, fortify the country, train the army into a cadre army and modernize the army on the basis of equipping the army and the people politically and ideologically.
Article 61
The State shall strengthen military and mass discipline in the army and promote the display of the noble traditional trait of unity between officers and men and unity between the army and the people.

Chapter 5 Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens


Article 62
The terms for becoming a citizen of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are defined by the Law on Nationality.
A citizen is under the protection of the DPRK regardless of the domicile.
Article 63
In the DPRK the rights and duties of citizens are based on the collectivist principle,¡° One for all and all for one.¡±
Article 64
The State shall effectively guarantee genuine democratic rights and liberties as well as the material and cultural well-being of its citizens.
In the DPRK the rights and freedom of citizens shall be amplified with the consolidation and development of the social system.
Article 65
Citizens enjoy equal rights in all spheres of State and public activities.
Article 66
All citizens who have reached the age of 17 have the right to elect and to be elected, irrespective of sex, race, occupation, length of residence, property status, education party affiliation, political views or religion.
Citizens serving in the armed forces also have the right to elect and to be elected. A person who has been disenfranchised by a Court decision and a person legally certified insane do not have the right to elect or to be elected.
Article 67
Citizens are guaranteed freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, demonstration and association.
The State shall guarantee conditions for the free activity of democratic political parties and social organizations.
Article 68
Citizens have freedom of religious beliefs. This right is granted by approving the construction of religious buildings and the holding of religious ceremonies.
No one may use religion as a pretext for drawing in foreign forces or for harming the State and social order.
Article 69
Citizens are entitled to submit complaints and petitions.
Complaints and petitions shall be investigated and dealt with according to procedure and within the period fixed by law.
Article 70
Citizens have the right to work.
All able-bodied citizens choose occupations in accordance with their wishes and skills and are provided with stable jobs and working conditions.
Citizens work according to their abilities and are paid in accordance with the quantity and quality of their work.
Article 71
Citizens have the right to relaxation. This right is ensured by the establishment of the working hours, the provision of holidays, paid leave, accommodation at health resorts and holiday homes at State expense and by a growing network of cultural facilities.
Article 72
Citizens are entitled to free medical care, and all persons who are no longer able to work because of old age, illness or a physical disability, the old and children who have no means of support are all entitled to material assistance.
This right is ensured by free medical care, an expanding network of hospitals, sanatoria and other medical institutions, State social insurance and other social security systems.
Article 73
Citizens have the right to education. This right is ensured by an advanced educational system and by the educational measures enacted by the State for the benefit of the people.
Article 74
Citizens are free to engage in scientific, literary and artistic pursuits.
The State shall grant benefits to inventors and innovators.
Copyright and patent rights shall be protected by law.
Article 75
The citizens shall have freedom to reside in and travel to any place.
Article 76
Revolutionary fighters, the families of revolutionary and patriotic martyrs, the families of soldiers of the People's Army and disabled enjoy the special protection of the State and society.
Article 77
Women are accorded an equal social status and rights with men.
The State shall afford special protection to mothers and children by providing maternity leave, reduced working hours for mothers with many children, a wide network of maternity hospitals, creches and kindergartens, and other measures.
The State shall provide all conditions for women to play a full role in society.
Article 78
Marriages and the family shall be protected by the State.
The State pays great attention to consolidating the family, the basic unit of social life.
Article 79
Citizens are guaranteed inviolability of the person and the home and privacy of correspondence.
No citizens can be placed under control or be arrested nor can their homes be searched without a legal warrant.
Article 80
The DPRK shall grant the right of asylum to foreign nationals persecuted for struggling or peace and democracy, national independence and socialism for the freedom of scientific and cultural pursuit.
Article 81
Citizens shall firmly safeguard the political and ideological unity and solidarity of the people.
Citizens must value organizations and collectives, and must demonstrate the spirit of devoting themselves to the work for the society and the people.
Article 82
Citizens shall strictly observe the laws of the State and the socialist standards of life and defend their honor and dignity as citizens of the DPRK.
Article 83
Work is noble duty and honor of a citizen.
Citizens shall willingly and conscientiously participate in work and strictly observe labor discipline and the working hours.
Article 84
Citizens shall take good care of State and communal property, combat all forms of misappropriation and waste and manage the nation's economy diligently as the masters.
The property of the State and the social, cooperative organization is inviolable.
Article 85
Citizens shall constantly increase their revolutionary vigilance and devotedly fight for the security of the State.
Article 86
National defense is the supreme duty and honor of citizens.
Citizens shall defend the country and serve in the army as required by law.

Chapter 6 The Structure of the State


Paragraph I) The Supreme People's Assembly
Article 87
The Supreme People's Assembly is the highest organ of State power in the DPRK.
Article 88
The SPA exercises legislative power.
When the SPA is not in session, the SPA Presidium also can exercise legislative power.
Article 89
The SPA is composed of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Article 90
The SPA is elected for a term of five years.
A new election is held before the term expires according to the decision of the SPA Presidium.
The term is extended if an election is not held due to unavoidable circumstances.
Article 91
The SPA has the authority to:
1. amend and supplement the Constitution,
2. adopt, amend and supplement departmental laws,
3. approve major departmental laws adopted by the SPA Presidium in the intervals between the sessions of the SPA,
4. establish the basic principles of the State's domestic and foreign policies,
5. elect or transfer the Chairman of the DPRK National Defense Commission,
6. elect or remove the President of the SPA Presidium,
7. elect or transfer the first vice-chairman, vice-chairmen and members of the National Defense Commission according to the recommendation of the Chairman of the DPRK National Defense Commission,
8. elect or transfer the vice-presidents, honorary vice presidents, secretary and members of the SPA Presidium,
9. elect or transfer the Premier of the Cabinet,
10. appoint the vice premiers of the Cabinet, chairmen of commissions, ministers and other members of the Cabinet according to the recommendation of the Premier of the Cabinet,
11. appoint or remove the Prosecutor-general,
12. elect or transfer the Chief Justice,
13. elect or transfer the chairmen, vice chairmen and members of the committees of the SPA,
14. examine and approve the State plan for the development of the national economy and a report on its fulfillment,
15. examine and approve a report on the State budget and on its implementation,
16. receive a report on the work of the Cabinet and national institutions and adopt measures, if necessary,
17. decide on the ratification or abrogation of treaties submitted to the SPA.
Article 92
The SPA holds regular and extraordinary sessions.
Regular sessions are convened once or twice a year by the SPA Presidium . Extraordinary sessions are convened when the SPA Presidium deems them necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total number of deputies.
Article 93
The SPA requires a quorum of at least two-thirds of the total number of deputies in order to meet.
Article 94
The SPA elects its Chairman and vice chairmen.
The Chairman presides over the sessions.
Article 95
An item on the agenda to be deliberated on by the SPA is submitted to the SPA Presidium, Cabinet and SPA committees.
Article 96
Each of the first session of the SPA elects a Credentials Committee and, on hearing the Committee's report, adopts a decision confirming the credentials of deputies.
Article 97
The SPA adopts laws and decisions.
Laws and decisions of the SPA are adopted when more than half of the deputies attending signify approval by a show of hands.
The Constitution is amended and supplemented with the approval of more than two-thirds of the total number of deputies to the SPA.
Article 98
The SPA sets up committees such as the legislation committee and the budget committee.
The SPA committees consist of its chairman, vice chairmen and members.
The SPA committees assist in the work of the SPA; they plan or deliberate on the State policy and bills and take measures for their implementation.
When the SPA is not in session, committees operate under the guidance of the SPA Presidium.
Deputies to the SPA are guaranteed inviolability as such.
No deputy to the SPA can be arrested or punished without the consent of the SPA or, when it is not in session, without the consent of the SPA Presidium, except for a flagrant offence.

Paragraph II) The National Defense Commission
Article 100
The National Defense Commission is the highest military leading organ of State power and an organ for general control over national defense.
Article 101
The NDC consists of its Chairman, first vice chairman, vice chairmen and members.
The term of the NDC Chairman is the same as that of the SPA.
Article 102
The Chairman of the NDC directs and commands all the armed forces and guides defense affairs as a whole.
Article 103
The NDC has the duties and authority to:
1. guide the armed forces and guide the State in defense building as a whole,
2. set up or abolish a national institution in the defense sector,
3. appoint or remove major military cadres,
4. set up military titles and confer the military rank of general and higher ranks,
5. proclaim a state of war and orders for mobilization.
Article 104
The NDC issues decisions and orders.
Article 105
The NDC is accountable to the SPA.

Paragraph III) The SPA Presidium
Article 106
The SPA Presidium is the highest organ of power in the intervals between sessions of the SPA.
Article 107
The SPA Presidium consists of its Chairman, vice chairman, secretaries and members.
Article 108
The SPA Presidium may appoint some honorary vice chairmen.
The honorary vice chairmen may be those from among SPA deputies who have participated in State construction works for a long time and made a noticeable contribution.
Article 109
The term of the SPA Presidium is the same as that of the SPA.
The SPA Presidium continuously fulfill its duty after its term expires until a new SPA Presidium is elected.
Article 110
The SPA Presidium has the duties and authority to
1. convene sessions of the SPA,
2. examine and adopt new departmental bills and regulations, raised when the SPA is in recess, and examine and adopt drafts of amendment and supplement to departmental bills and regulations in force, and receive approval from the next SPA session on important departmental bills which will be adopted and implemented,
3. examine and approve the State plan for the development of the national economy, the State budget and its adjusted plan, raised when the SPA is in recess due to unavoidable circumstances,
4. interpret the Constitution, departmental laws and regulations in force,
5. supervise the observance of laws of State organs, and adopt measures,
6. abolish State organs' decisions which violate the Constitution, SPA's laws and decisions, NDC's decisions and orders and the SPA Presidium's decrees, decisions and directions, and suspend the implementation of unwarranted decisions by a local people's assembly,
7. do work for an SPA deputy election, and organize an election for deputies in a local people's assembly,
8. do work with SPA deputies,
9. do work with SPA departmental committees,
10. form or abolish commissions and ministries of the Cabinet,
11. appoint or remove vice premiers, chairman, and Cabinet and ministry members upon a proposal by Premier when the SPA is in recess,
12. appoint or remove members of departmental committees of the SPA Presidium,
13. elect or transfer judges of the Central Court and people's assessors,
14. ratify or abrogate treaties concluded with other countries,
15. decide on and publish the appointment or recall of diplomatic envoys accredited to foreign countries,
16. institute a decoration, a medal, an honorary title and a diplomatic rank, and grant a decoration, a medal, and an honorary title,
17. exercise the right to grant general amnesties or special pardon,
18. institute and reorganize an administration unit and district.
Article 111
The President of the SPA Presidium organizes and guides the work of the presidium.
The President of the SPA Presidium represents the State and receives credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited by a foreign state.
Article 112
The SPA Presidium convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the members and the executive meeting of the President, vice presidents, and secretary.
Article 113
The SPA Presidium's plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts important issues for the Presidium to implement its duties and authority.
The executive meeting deliberates on and adopts issues which are entrusted to it by the plenary meeting.
Article 114
The SPA Presidium issues decrees, decisions and directions.
Article 115
The SPA Presidium may set up its assistant departmental committees.
Article 116

Paragraph IV) Cabinet
Article 117
The Cabinet is the administrative and executive body of the highest organ of State power and a general state management organ.
Article 118
The Cabinet consists of the Premier, vice premiers, chairmen of commissions, ministers and some other necessary members.
The Cabinet's term is the same as that of the SPA.
Article 119
The Cabinet has duties and authority to:
1. adopt measures to execute state policy,
2. institute, amend, and supplement regulations concerning state management based on the Constitution and departmental laws,
3. guide the work of the Cabinet, commissions, ministries, direct organs of the Cabinet, local people's committees,
4. set up and remove direct organs of the Cabinet, main administrative economic organizations, and enterprises, and adopt measures to improve the State management structure,
5. draft the State plan for the development of the national economy and adopt measures to put it into effect,
6. compile the State budget and adopt measures to implement it,
7. organize and exercise works in the fields of industry, agriculture, construction, transportation, communications, commerce, trade, land management, city management, education, science, culture, health, physical training, labor administration, environmental protection, tourism and others,
8. adopt measures to strengthen the monetary and banking system,
9. do inspection and control work to establish a state management order,
10. adopt measures to maintain social order, protect State and social cooperation body's possession and interests, and to guarantee citizens' rights,
11. conclude treaties with foreign countries, and conduct external activities,
12. abolish decisions and directions by economic administrative organs, which run counter to the Cabinet decisions or directions.
Article 120
The Premier of the Cabinet organizes and guides the work of the Cabinet.
The Premier represents the government of the DPRK.
Article 121
The Cabinet convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the Cabinet members and the executive meeting of the Premier, vice premier and other Cabinet members whom the Premier nominates.
Article 122
The Cabinet plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts new and important issues in economic administrative work.
Article 123
The Cabinet adopts decisions and directions.
Article 124
The Cabinet may set up non-permanent departmental committees which assist in its works.
Article 125
The Cabinet is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.
Article 126
The newly elected Premier of the Cabinet makes an oath in the SPA, representing Cabinet members.
Article 127
The Cabinet commission and ministries are departmental executive organs, and departmental management organs.
Article 128
The Cabinet commissions and ministries grasp, guide and manage the work in charge, under the guidance of the Cabinet.
Article 129
The Cabinet commissions and ministries manage committee assemblies and cadres assemblies. Commission and ministry committee assemblies and cadres assemblies deliberate on and adopt measures to exercise Cabinet decisions, and directions and other important issues.
Article 130
The Cabinet commissions and ministries issue directions.
Article 131
Provincial (or municiparity directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's assemblies are local sovereign power organs.
Article 132
The LPA consists of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Article 133
The term of provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's assemblies are four years.
A new election of the LPA is held according to a decision of a Local People's Committee (LPC) at the corresponding level before the LPA's term expires.
Article 134
The LPA has the duties and authority to:
1. deliberate on and approve a report on local plans for the development of the national economy, and their implementation,
2. deliberate on and approve a report on a local budget and its execution,
3. adopt measures to exercise State laws in the area concerned,
4. elect or recall the chairman, vice chairmen, secretary of the people's committee at the corresponding level,
5. elect or recall judges of a court and people's assessors,
6. abolish unwarranted decisions and directions adopted by a people's committee, and a lower people's assembly.
Article 135
The LPA convenes a regular assembly and an extraordinary assembly.
The regular assembly is convened once or twice in a year by an LPC at the corresponding level.
The extraordinary assembly is held when the people's committee at the corresponding level deems it necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total numbers of deputies.
Article 136
The LPA forms a quorum when the two-third of the deputies participate in it.
Article 137
The LPA elects its chairman.
Article 138
The LPA issues its decisions.

Paragraph VI) Local People's Committee
Article 139
Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's committees are local sovereign power organs when the corresponding LPAs are in recess, and are administrative executive organs of local sovereignty.
Article 140
The LPC consists of its chairman, vice chairmen, secretaries and members.
The term of LPC is the same as that of the LPA.
Article 141
The LPC has the duties and authorities to:
1. convene a people's assembly,
2. do preparatory work for the election of a local assembly,
3. do work with deputies of a people's assembly,
4. exercise laws, decrees, decisions and directions of the people's assembly at the corresponding level, upper people's assemblies, people's committees, and the Cabinet, Cabinet commissions, and ministries,
5. organize and exercise all the administrative work in the area concerned,
6. draft a local plan for the development of the national economy and adopt measures to put it into effect,
7. compile a local budget and adopt measures to put it into effect,
8. adopt measures to maintain social order in the area concerned, protect the property and interests of the State and social cooperative organizations, and to guarantee citizens' rights,
9. do inspection and control work to establish order in state management in the area concerned,
10. guide the lower people's committees in its work,
11. abolish unwarranted decisions and direction adopted by a lower people's committee, and suspend implementation of unwarranted decisions made by a lower people's committee.
Article 142
The LPC convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the LPC members, and the executive meeting of the chairman, vice chairmen, and secretary.
Article 143
The plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts important issues for the LPC to implement its duties and authority.
Article 144
The LPC issues decisions and directions.
Article 145
The LPC may set up non-permanent departmental committees which assist in its works.
Article 146
The LPC is accountable to the LPA at the correspondent level.
The LPC is subordinate to the upper people's committees and the Cabinet.

Paragraph VII) Public Procurators' Office and Court
Article 147
Justice is administered by the Central Court, the Court of the province (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal and county courts and the Special Court.
Article 148
The term of office of the President of the Central Court is the same as that of the SPA.
Article 149
The Central Procurators' Office appoints and recalls a public procurator.
Article 150
The functions of the Public Procurators' Office are to:
1. ensure the strict observance of laws by institutions, enterprises, organizations and by citizens,
2. ensure that decisions and directives of State bodies conform with the Constitution, the SPA's laws and decisions, the NDC's decisions and orders, the SPA Presidium's decrees, decisions, and directions, and the Cabinet decisions,
3. expose and institute legal proceedings against criminals and offenders in order to protect the State power of the DPRK, the socialist system, the property of the State and social, cooperative organizations and personal rights as guaranteed by the Consitution and the people's lives and property.
Article 151
Investigation are prosecution are conducted under the unified direction of the Central Public Procurators' Office, and all Public Procurators' Offices are subordinate to their higher offices and the Central Procurators' Office.
Article 152
The Central Procurators' Office is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.
Article 153
Justice is administered by the Central Court, Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority) Court, People's Court or by the Special Court.
Verdicts are delivered in the name of the DPRK.
Article 154
The term of director of the Central Court is the same as that of the SPA. The term of judges of the Central Court, Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority) Court, People's Court, and that of the people's assessors are the same as that of the people's assembly at the corresponding level.
Article 155
The Central Court appoints and removes the director and judges of the Special Court.
People's assessors of the Special Court are elected by soldiers of the unit concerned or by employees at their meetings.
Article 156
The court has the duties to:
1. protect through judicial procedure the State power and the socialist system established in the DPRK, the property of the State and social, cooperative organizations, personal rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, and the lives and property of citizens,
2. ensure that all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens abide strictly by State laws and staunchly combat class enemies and all law-breakers;
3. give judgements and findings with regard to property and conduct notarial work.
Article 157
A trial is conducted by a court which consists of one judge and two people's assessors.
In a special case, the court may consists of three judges.
Article 158
Court cases are heard in public and the accused is guaranteed the right of defence.
Hearings may be closed to the public as stipulated by law.
Article 159
Judicial proceedings are conducted in the Korean language.
Foreign citizens may use their own language during court proceedings.
Article 160
In administering justice, the Court is independent, and judicial proceedings are carried out in strict accordance with the law.
Article 161
The Central Court is the supreme court of the DPRK.
The Central Court supervises trial activities of all courts.
Article 162
The Central Court is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.

Chapter 7 National Emblem, Flag, National Anthem and Capital


Article 163
The national emblem of the DPRK bears the design of a grand hydroelectric power station under Mt. Paektu, the sacred mountain of the revolution, and the beaming light of a five-pointed red star, with ears of rice forming an oval frame, bound with a red ribbon bearing the inscription "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
Article 164
The national flag of the DPRK consists of a central red panel, bordered both above and below by a narrow white stripe and a broad blue stripe. The central red panel bears a five-pointed red star within a white circle near the hoise.
The ratio of the width to its length is 1:2.
Article 165
The national anthem of the DPRK is "the Patriotic Song.¡±
Article 166
The capital of the DPRK is Pyongyang.

Let Us Reunify Country Independently and Peacefully
Through Great Unity of Entire Nation
Kim Jong Il

(Ed: Comrade Kim Jong 11 on April 18 sent a letter "Let us Reunify the Country Inde-pendently and Peacefully Through the Great Unity of the Entire Nation" to a na-tional symposium marking the 50th anni-versary of the historic joint conference of representatives of political parties and public organisations in the north and south of Korea.)
Following is the full text of the letter:
We have recently commemorated the 5th anniversary of the publication of the ten--point programme of the great unity of the whole nation for the reunification of the country and soon will greet the 50th anniversary of the historic joint conference of representatives of the political parties and social organisations of north and south Korea.
The north-south joint conference, which was held at the personal proposal of the great leader Comrade Kim 11 Sung and under his guidance in Pyongyang in April Juche 37 (1948), was a historic national conference for saving the destiny of the country and nation, by realising the great unity of the entire nation under the banner of reunification and patriotism. At a time when there was the danger of the division of the nation being finalised because of the machinations of the U.S. imperialists and their stooges for a "separate election and separate government" in south Korea, the great leader Comrade Kim 11 Sung con-vened the north- south joint conference, united different political parties and groups and the patriotic force of different sections of the population in the north and the south and made an imperishable achievement in the noble cause of realizing the sovereignty, independence and reunification of the country.
In the extremely complex political situ-ation in the years immediately after libera-tion, the representatives of nearly all the political parties and social organisations and even die-hard anticommunist nation-alists in south Korea with the exception of a handful of traitors to the nation partici-pated in the broad national conference, reached an unanimous agreement and launched a nation-wide patriotic struggle.
This was a brilliant fruition of the great leader's line of independent national reuni-fication and his idea of great national unity as well as the first historic victory of the patriotic force for reunification. The April north-south joint conference clearly showed that the communists, nationalists and various other political forces and dif-ferent sections of the population would be fully able to unite in the struggle for the common cause of the nation regardless of the difference in ideology, ideals, political views and religious beliefs, and that the independent and peaceful reunification of the country could be realised through north-south harmony and the unity of the entire nation. The north-south joint conference held thanks to the great leader's painstaking efforts and under his guidance will shine for ever down through history as a patriotic conference that demonstrated the great unity of our nation, and now on the occasion of its 50th anniversary the experience and achievement of the conference inspire all the Koreans in the north, south and abroad with a new aspiration for national unity and reunification, enthusi-asm, confidence and courage.
The great leader Comrade Kim 11 Sung clarified the question of the nation in a fresh light on the basis of the Juche idea in his early years, advanced the original idea of great national unity, brilliantly applied it throughout the historical course of the struggle for national liberation, for the building of a new country and for the reunification of the country, and set a noble example of great national unity.
The Great leader's idea of great national unity is an idea that encourages all the classes and strata to unite solidly to safe-guard and realize national independence by placing the common desire and interests of the nation above everything else in spite of the difference in ideology and ideals, political views and religious beliefs, property status and social positions.
The Juche idea scientifically elucidated the law of the development of the nation and basis of national unity for the first time. The country and nation are the home of people as well as the basic unit for shaping their destiny. Since the people live and shape their destiny within the unit of the nation-state, the destiny of the members of the nation is inseparably linked with the destiny of the nation, and the basic ques-tion in shaping the nation's destiny boils down to safeguarding and realizing na-tional independence. Nobody can live separately from his country and nation, and no class and no section of the nation can shape its destiny properly unless the inde-pendence of the nation is ensured. A na-tion has its traits that have been shaped and consolidated historically as well as its common desire and interests that transcend the difference of classes and strata. The na-tional traits and common interests consti-tute the basis of national unity on which bind different classes and strata of the nation in a broad spectrum. The great leader's idea of great national unity is a thorough idea of national independence, a noble idea of patriotism and an idea of the broadest national unity - an application of the Juche idea to the question of the nation.
The question of national unity is all the more urgent in view of the unique traits of our nation and characteristics of the his-torical development of our country. Our nation, as a homogeneous nation with time-honoured history and culture, is highly patriotic and strong in esprit de corps. One time in the past, however, our nation suf-fered the misfortune of losing its sover-eignty because of the struggle for power among the corrupt and incompetent feudal rulers and their sycophant, traitorous acts, and in subsequent years, too, the national-ist movement and the early communist movement failed because of factional strife and sycophancy. The great leader's idea of great national unity is an outstanding idea that shows the absolutely correct way to preserve and highly display the excellency of our national traits, put an end to the shameful history of national suffering and achieve the sovereignty and independence of the country and national prosperity.
The Juche-orientated idea of great na-tional unity elucidated by the respected Comrade Kim 11 Sung, who authored the great Juche idea and had noble love for the country and nation as well as broad cali-bre and magnanimity, provided our nation with a powerful ideological and spiritual weapon for achieving the great unity of the entire nation and for independently shaping- the destiny of the country and nation. The Juche-oriented idea of great national unity is an original idea that raised the national question and the question of national unity in a fresh light and comprehensively and profoundly clarified them by reflect-ing the main trend of our times when all the oppressed nations and the peoples of all countries have achieved liberation and independence and are heading for indepen-dence. It is a great idea that has provided the world people with a correct guideline and the banner of struggle for the victory in the cause of anti-imperialist independence. The respected leader's elucidation of the Juche-orientated theory of nation and the idea of the great unity of the entire nation, which gave a new scientific clarification to the question of the nation and the question of national unity constitutes one of his great ideological and theoreti-cal achievements and a preeminent contribution to global independence and to humanity's cause of independence.
The great leader Comrade Kim II Sung not only advanced the idea of great national unity based on the Juche idea, but also worked with great pains all his life for the unity of our nation. During the anti-Japa-nese revolutionary struggle the great leader united all the patriotic forces from all walks of life under the banner of resistance to Japan and led the anti-Japanese national liberation struggle to victory. The Associa-tion for the Restoration of the Fatherland organised in this period was the anti-Japa-nese national united front which embraced the broad patriotic forces- communists, nationalists, workers, peasants, intellectuals, youths, students and even conscientious religious men and capitalists; this organisation struck root deep in the vast area at home and abroad. In the course of the just struggle of all the anti-Japanese patriotic forces for national liberation under the guidance of the great leader, valu-able experience was gained in achieving national unity and fine traditions were established in this work.
After liberation the great leader raised the slogan, "the entire nation must unite, those with strength contributing strength, those with knowledge devoting knowledge and those with money offering money to the building of a new country" and encour-aged the people from all strata of society who love the country and nation to come out as one for the building of a democratic, independent and sovereign state.
Owing to territorial and national divi-sion, achieving the great unity of the en-tire nation became the most serious and urgent question that is vital to the des-tiny of the country and nation. From the first days of national division the great leader wisely guided the struggle to achieve great national unity under the ban-ner of national reunification and thus de-veloped the national reunification move-ment into a nation-wide movement. He opened the way to dialogues and negotia-tions between the north and south, which had been tightly closed to each other and advanced the three principles of national reunification- independence, peaceful re-unification and a great national unity- laying a solid foundation for national unity and national reunification. He guided the different sections of our compatriots in the north, south and abroad along the patriotic road to national unity and national reunification.
"Ten-point programme of the great unity of the whole nation for the reunifi-cation of the country" published by the great leader in the last days of his life is the summary of his idea of great national unity and his practical experience in this work as well as an immortal document for great national unity. This programme elucidates the fundamental principles and the ideological basis to be maintained in achieving the great unity of the nation and the specific tasks and ways of implement-ing them.
The idea of great national unity, the ten--point programme of the great unity of the whole nation advanced by the great leader, the valuable experience he gained in his work for national unity and the brilliant results of his distinguished services are the eternal wealth of our country and nation and the solid foundation for great national unity and national reunification. Achieving great national unity and reunifying the country in our generation by defending and faithfully inheriting the great idea of na-tional unity, brilliant results, valuable ex-perience and traditions left by the great leader is our unshakable determination and will.
True to the great leader's idea of great national unity and his ten-point programme of the great unity of the whole nation, we must strive for the great unity of all the Koreans in the north, south and abroad and achieve the independent, peaceful reunifi-cation of the country by the united efforts of the nation.
Our nation is the motive force of na-tional reunification and the cause of reuni-fying the country are the cause of connecting the severed blood ties between the north and the south and realizing national unity. Apart from reconciliation between north and south and great national unity, the independent, peaceful reunification of the country would be inconceivable. The great unity of the entire nation means national reunification.
Today, the great unity of our nation and national reunification has become a more urgent question than ever before. In view of the situation at home and abroad, the fundamental interests of our nation and the trend of the times, now is the time for us to save the destiny of the country and na-tion through the great unity of the entire nation and demonstrate the dignity and honour as one reunified country and one nation.
Putting an end to the tragedy of territorial division and national split that has lasted over half a century and achieving national unity and the country's reunification are the vital demand and the supreme task of the nation that must not be delayed any longer. The longer the division, the greater the misfortunes and sufferings of our nation and the greater the danger of the nation becoming heterogeneous. Fur-ther distrust and confrontation between the north and the south may invite national calamity. The foreign forces, which do not like Korea's reunification are now fanning the confrontation between the north and the south in an attempt to fish in troubled wa-ters; the imperialists are intensifying their plot of dominating everywhere under the cloak of "globalisation." If our country remains in confrontation, divided into north and south, in such a complex and threatening situation as today, our nation will be unable to free itself from foreign domination and subjugation, playing into the hands of foreign forces, and may be reduced to colonial slavery. Nobody with the Korean soul can shut his eyes to na-tional unity and national reunification. Trying to delay the solution of the reunification problem, averting his eyes from it, amounts to an attempt to finalise and perpetuate- division. Our nation must overcome all difficulties and obstacles in the way of national reunification, achieve the great unity of the nation as soon as possible, and reunify the country. We are sure to reunify the country.
It is not two different nations that stand in confrontation in the north and south of Korea, but one nation that is divided artificially by foreign forces in the same land. The Korean nation is a homogeneous nation that has inherited the same blood and lived in the same territory speaking the same language for thousands of years. All the Koreans in the north, south and abroad belong to the same nation with the blood and soul of the Korean nation and are linked inseparably with the same national interests and the common national psychol-ogy and sentiment. No force can ever split into two forever the single Korean nation that has been formed and developed through a long history, nor can it obliterate our nation and our national traits.
The present division of our nation into north and south is a temporary misfortune and tragedy in the context of 5,000 years of its history. The reunion of our nation that has been divided by foreign forces is an inevitable trend of our nation's history and the law of national development.
In the past, the Japanese imperialists resorted to every conceivable scheme to annihilate our nation, occupying our country and enforcing the most heinous colonial rule. However, the Korean revolution-aries and patriots launched a bloody struggle to save the country and the nation, and at last wiped out Japanese imperial-ism and liberated their country. After the defeat of Japanese imperialism, the U.S. imperialists occupied south Korea, lording it over there, trampling upon our national sovereignty, and trying tenaciously to keep our nation divided forever. But the spirit of the nation still remains alive among the south Korean people. Broad sections of the people in south Korea and particularly the young people and students continue to fight bravely against the domination of foreign forces and the treachery of the south Ko-rean rulers. This is the manifestation of the national indignation of south Korean brothers who resist tyranny and disgrace and of the unbreakable spirit of our nation.
The national trend towards reunification is mounting higher with each passing day.
It would be impossible to break or check our nation's will and desire to reunify the country through the unity of the entire na-tion. We must redouble our efforts to achieve the great unity of the entire nation and the independent and peaceful reunification of the country, full of confidence and optimism. Great national unity must be based thoroughly on the principle of national ndependence.
National independence is the lifeblood of a nation; safeguarding independence is a fundamental guarantee for a nation's existence and development. It is only when we adhere to the principle of national independence that we can defend the national rights and interests, shape the nation's destiny independently in keeping with the will and demand of our nation, and fully exercise our sovereignty on the international arena and develop the relations with foreign countries on the principles of complete equality and mutual benefit. National independence is the source of national dignity and honour, pride and self- confidence, as well as the indomitable will and spirit of the nation. If a nation loses its independence and fails to get rid of domination and subjugation by foreign forces, it will be unable to avoid national humiliation and insult and the fate of a ruined nation, with its rights and interests, its traits and dig-nity downtrodden. The principle of national independence is the key to the national question and the very basis of the great unity of the entire nation. The nation fights in unity in order to oppose domination and subjugation by foreign forces and keep national independence. Our struggle for the great unity of the entire nation is precisely a struggle to achieve our national sovereignty across the whole country, a struggle to accomplish the cause of national reunification by our own national force, and ensure the independent development of the reunified country and the common prosperity of the nation. Both great national unity and national reunification are aimed at keeping the indepen-dence of the country and the nation.
The principle of national independence is a touchstone that distinguishes patriotism from treachery to the nation, the line of reunification from the line of division. Claiming for independence and north--south reconciliation and unity while pursuing the policy of dependence on foreign forces is nothing but an empty talk. Just as patriotism is incompatible with treachery to the nation, so is national independence incompatible with dependence on foreign forces. He who truly desires north-south reconciliation, national unity and national reunification must follow the road of national independence, not the road of dependence on foreign forces.
National unity is always aimed at defending and realizing national independence; it is inconceivable to talk about na-tional unity apart from the principle of national independence. Only when we achieve the great unity of the entire nation on the basis of the principle of national independence, can our nation become a true master of its destiny, a strong driving force and a decisive force of national re-unification and national prosperity. We must categorically oppose and reject sycophancy to great powers and dependence on foreign forces, and achieve great national unity on the basis of the principle of national independence.
The entire nation must unite under the banner of patriotism, the banner of national reunification.
Loving one's country and nation and cherishing one's national traits are the common psychology and sentiment of the members of the nation. Ours is a nation with strong national character, cherishing ardent love for the country and fellow people and treasuring and inheriting the national soul. Our nation's patriotic spirit and inherent traits form a strong ideological and spiritual basis of the great unity of the whole nation. Moreover, to our nation that has suffered all manners of misfortune and pains caused by national division, na-tional reunification is the supreme national demand, and the banner of national reuni-fication is the banner of common national struggle, the banner of great unity of the whole nation. The entire nation must achieve great unity for the great common cause of the nation on the basis of the in-herent traits of the Korean nation.
There are a variety of differences, in-cluding those in ideology and system be-tween the north and south that have been kept divided for over half a century. However, the national community as one na-tion is far greater than them. The demands and interests of different classes and strata of the nation are different from one another; but the primary task facing our na-tion today is national reunification, and we must subordinate everything to the cause of national reunification. If we regard the difference in ideology and system between north and south as absolute, and put aside the national community and the common interests of the nation while bringing the interests of individual classes and strata to the fore, we can achieve neither great na-tional unity nor national reunification. All the Koreans in the north, south and abroad must unite closely under the ban-ner of patriotism, the banner of national reunification, irrespective of their differ-ence in ideology and system, political views and religion, transcending the inter-ests of classes and strata. All the members of the nation-workers, farmers, intellectuals, youths and students, the urban petty-bourgeoisie, national capitalists, politicians, businessmen, men of culture, religious men and soldiers-must fight in unity for national reunification, and make an active contribution to the cause of national reunification.
It is our steadfast standpoint and consistent policy to embrace and unite all the people who cherish the soul of the nation and all the people who love the country and nation, irrespective of their ideology and system, class and stratum, for the great unity of the entire nation. Our all- embracing politics is the politics of noble love for humanity that embraces everybody with loving care. It is the most magnanimous and patriotic politics that unites all the classes and strata of the nation rock-solid for the common cause of the country and nation. We will invariably carry on the all-embracing politics on the road to national unity and the country's reunification, unite with anybody with national conscience and aspiration to the country's reunification and advance hand in hand in the same rank for the country's reunification. People who have taken a wrong path in the past can repent of their mistake and embark on the road of patriotism. On the principle of asking no question about the past, we will approach with generosity those who went the wrong way against the nation in the past, but now truly repent of their mistakes and try to contribute to the cause of national reunification, and will advance with them for national reunification. We will also unite with people from upper classes in power, figures from the government party and the opposition party, big capitalists and generals in south Korea under the banner of great unity of the nation, if they value the common interests of the nation and want the reunification of the country.
Once we join hands with people, we will co-operate with them not only on the road to national reunification but also in the struggle for the prosperity of the reunified country and will highly evaluate, in the name of the nation, those who have made contribution to national reunification.
We must improve the relations between the north and the south in order to achieve the great unity of our nation.
To replace the relations of distrust and confrontation between north and south with those of trust and reconciliation is a pressing requirement for national unity and national reunification. The successive south Korean authorities have obstructed harmony between the north and the south with their anti-north confrontation policy that regards the fellow countrymen as an enemy and foments hostility and discord among the nation and hindered the great unity of the nation in every way. The south Korean authorities' anti-north confrontation policy is the root that gives rise to misunderstanding and distrust between the north and the south. It is the stumbling block to the improvement of the north--south relations and national unity. If the south Korean authorities continue to pursue the hostile anti-north confrontation policy, it will be impossible to create the atmosphere of trust and reconciliation between the north and the south. It will only increase tension and bring about an irretrievable result.
When different ideologies and systems exist in the north and the south, denial of the other side's ideology and system will make it impossible to avoid confrontation. The north and the south, on the basis of recognising the existence of the different ideologies and systems, must achieve har-mony, promote co-existence, co-prosperity and common interests and open the way to national reunification.
Whoever is hostile to his fellow countrymen and pursues the anti-north confron-tation policy with the backing of foreign forces and in co-operating with them, will be cursed and condemned by the people and cannot escape from the trial of history. The wretched ends of successive rulers of south Korea prove this. If the south Korean authorities do not want to follow in the footsteps of their predecessors, they should learn a lesson from their ends and make a resolute decision to break with the outmoded anti-north confrontation. If the south Korean authorities change their policy and convert the anti-north confrontation policy into reconciliation policy of alliance with the north, the relations between the north and the south will develop into those of trust and reconciliation and a new phase be opened for national unity and national reunification. The south Korean authorities must change their anti-north confrontation policy into reconciliation policy of alliance with the north from a patriotic standpoint and take the road of national reconciliation and unity. In south Korea the fascist laws and machinery that obstruct the unity of the nation and the reunification of the country must be abol-ished and all sorts of political barriers removed.
Our position in relation to the south Korean authorities is clear. We were against the successive rulers of south Korea not because they were in power. We were opposed to their policy of dependence on foreign forces, their policy against reunification, and their treachery to the coun-try and nation. If the south Korean authorities take the patriotic stand, the stand of unity in alliance with the north, we will work with them to shape the destiny of the nation. For the great unity of our nation, we must reject domination and interference of the foreign forces and fight against the trai-tors to the nation, the anti-reunification forces, who are in collusion with the foreign forces.
Domination and interference of the for-eign forces is the major obstacle to the unity of our nation and the reunification of the country. Our nation has been divided into north and south by the foreign forces, and the country and nation have not yet been reunified because of their domination and interference. Dividing and ruling other nations is a stereotyped method used by imperialists. In disregard of the demand of our nation for national reunification and running against the trend of the age of independence, the United States is pursuing as ever its ambition to keep our nation di-vided forever and rule it. They are aggravating the situation by fomenting antago-nism and discord among our nation, instigating the south Korean authorities to con-frontation against their fellow countrymen, continuing to keep their troops in south Korea and ceaselessly stepping up war exercises and military build-up.
Under the instigation and manipulation of the foreign forces, the successive south Korean rulers have built the wall of division, intensified the political and military confrontation between the north and south, put down the south Korean people, who aspire after independence, democracy and national reunification, and resorted to every scheme to divide and disintegrate the patriotic, democratic force that fights for reunification. Without fighting against the domination and interference of the foreign forces and the divisive force at home and abroad, it would be impossible to realize unity between north and south, the great unity of the nation and the reunification of the country.
Through a nation-wide struggle against the domination and interference of the foreign forces, all the Koreans in the north, south and abroad must root up the cause of obstruction to national unity and reunification. They must also launch a resolute struggle against the anti- reunification policies and the schemes for national division pursued by the traitors to the nation, who collaborate with the foreign forces for their personal wealth and power with no regard for the destiny of the country and nation.
The patriotic, democratic force that fights for reunification must heighten their vigilance against the cunning machinations of the divisive elements aimed at wedge driving and disintegration and counter them by the force of unity. All the political parties, organisations and the figures and people from various social strata who love the country and nation and aspire after reunification must regard the great cause of national unity and reunification as the supreme demand, strengthen their unity, continue to expand the patriotic ranks for reunification and organise them on a solid basis.
For the great unity of the nation all the Koreans in the north, south and abroad must visit one another, hold contacts, pro-mote dialogue and strengthen solidarity.
Promoting wide-ranging visits, contacts, dialogues and solidarity among our compatriots is an important way to achieve the great unity of the nation. Even though there is difference in ideologies, ideals, political views and religious beliefs within our nation, the fellow countrymen can build up mutual understanding and trust and pool their will and efforts for the com-mon objective of the nation if they all freely travel, hold contacts and dialogues and strengthen solidarity. Cherishing the noble ideals of great national unity and national reunification, all our compatriots in the north, south and abroad must strive to realize travel, contact, dialogue and organisational solidarity.
Dialogue between the north and south must serve national unity and reunification. No one must make use of the dialogue to pursue dishonest political objectives or to perpetuate the division of the country. The dialogue must be held on the principle of giving precedence to the common interests of the nation, eliminating distrust and confrontation between the north and south and subordinating everything to reunifying the country.
The dialogue must not be the monopoly of a few men in authority or of a particular class or section. It must be a wide-ranging, nation-wide dialogue that can pool the opinions of all-political parties, groups and social sections.
The dialogue must be participated in by the representatives of all-political parties and social organisations including the authorities, and the figures and people from various walks of life in the north and south and the overseas compatriots. And bilateral and multilateral dialogues and negotiations of various forms must be promoted.
The great unity of the entire nation will be realised and consolidated in the course of developing joint actions in solidarity in the struggle for national reunification. All the political parties, organisations and fellow countrymen in the north, south and abroad must support and keep pace with one another, taking joint action in the ef-fort for the reunification of the country. The struggle of our nation for the independent and peaceful reunification of the country is now entering a new historical phase. The road to reunification is still beset with many obstacles and difficulties but we are optimistic about its future. Our nation is one, and so is our country. Our nation must achieve great unity under the banner of national reunification.
I am convinced that the whole nation in the north, south and abroad will realize the historical cause of national reunification through united effort in our generation, true to the great leader Comrade Kim 11 Sung's instructions for national reunification.

The North Korea Policy of The Kim Dae-jung Administration
By MINISTRY OF UNIFICATION, REPUBLIC OF KOREA

1. Policy Objective
Improvement of Intra-Korean Relations by Promoting Peace, Reconciliation and Cooperation 2. Three Principles of the North Korea Policy
¨ç No Armed Provocation by North Korea Will Be Tolerated
¨è A Takeover or Absorption of North Korea Will Not Be Attempted
¨é Reconciliation and Cooperation Will Be Expanded
3. Guidelines for Implementing the North Korea Policy
- Simultaneous Promotion of Strong National Security and Intra-Korean Cooperation
- Promotion of Peaceful Coexistence and Intra-Korean Interaction as a Top Priority
- Creation of an Environment Conducive to Reform in North Korea
- Promotion of Common Interests
- Adherence to the Principle of Self-determination and Winning Support from the International Community
- Implementation of North Korea Policy Based on Consensus
4. Directions for Implementation
- Reactivation of the 1991 Basic Agreement through Dialogue
- Separation of Business from Politics
- Reunions of Separated Families
- Flexibility in Providing Food Aid to North Korea
- Continued Commitment to the Light-water Reactor Project
- Creation of a Peaceful Environment on the Korean Peninsula

1. Policy Objective
Improvement of Intra-Korean Relations by Promoting Peace, Reconciliation and Cooperation
The Kim Dae-jung Administration hopes to improve intra-Korean relations by promoting peace, reconciliation and cooperation.
At the present stage, it is more urgent to establish durable peace and assure the peaceful coexistence of the two Koreas than to push for immediate unification. When there is an assurance of durable peace, the Administration plans to promote reconciliation and cooperation with North Korea.
2. Three Principles of the North Korea Policy
¨ç No Armed Provocation by North Korea Will Be Tolerated
The Administration will never tolerate any armed provocation by North Korea which would only destroy the peace.
The Administration will maintain a strong security posture against North Korea to deter war and will make it clear that it will respond to any provocation. In this way, it hopes to persuade North Korea to abandon its reliance on violence.
At the same time, the Administration will continue efforts to reduce tension and build a durable peace on the Korean Peninsula, thus creating an atmosphere that would make it more difficult for North Korea to stage a military provocation.
¨è A Takeover or Absorption of North Korea Will Not Be Attempted
The Administration has no desire to harm North Korea nor to absorb it unilaterally.
Rather than promoting the collapse of North Korea, the Administration intends to work for peaceful coexistence with the North, thus creating an atmosphere favorable to the formation of a South-North Union. The Union will gradually lead to peaceful unification.
¨é Reconciliation and Cooperation Will Be Expanded
The Administration will do its best to promote reconciliation and cooperation with the North.
In order to dissolve the hostility between the two Koreas accumulated since the division of the country and lay down a foundation for mutual understanding, the Administration will first promote reconciliation and cooperation in the areas where they are possible and try to reactivate the 1991 Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression and Exchanges and Cooperation between the South and the North, often referred to as the Basic Agreement.
The Administration will also support North Korea's own efforts to reform itself, thus restoring the sense of national homogeneity between the two Koreas and improving the welfare of entire Korean people.
3. Guidelines for Implementing the North Korea Policy
Simultaneous Promotion of Strong National Security and Intra-Korean Cooperation
The maintenance of strong national security is the basis of an effective North Korea policy. The Administration is determined to enhance its independent capabilities to defend the nation while consolidating the ROK-U.S. alliance and working to create a collective security structure with the countries in the Northeast Asian region.
Based on strong national security, the Administration will be as flexible as possible in promoting intra-Korean interaction and various cooperative efforts, thus making a substantive improvement in intra-Korean relations.
Promotion of Peaceful Coexistence and Intra-Korean Interaction as a Top Priority
The unification of the two Koreas will be a long and difficult task. At this point, the most urgent task is to remove the threat of armed provocation and achieve peaceful coexistence.
While making it clear that the road to unification begins with the two Koreas recognizing and respecting each other's system as they agreed in the Basic Agreement of 1991, the Administration will give priority to managing the national division in a peaceful manner.
Once peaceful coexistence is assured, it will do its best to improve intra-Korean relations and eventually achieve unification by expanding South-North interaction and cooperation.
Creation of an Environment Conducive to Reform in North Korea
It is more appropriate to try to improve intra-Korean relations by inducing gradual change in the North than to try and contain the North in expectation that it will collapse.
The Administration does not intend to try and force North Korea to change. It will, however, try to expand its engagement with the North in support Pyongyang+s own efforts to reform.
The Administration will keep its composure even if North Korea challenges it with irrational demands and threats. Instead, it will endeavor harder to increase contacts, expand dialogue and increase cooperation with North Korea to create an atmosphere favorable for reform in the North.
Promotion of Common Interests
The Administration will no longer simply provide North Korea with charity but will promote long-term intra-Korean economic relations to achieve joint development and co-prosperity.
The two Koreas need to start working together for the joint development of an intra-Korean economic union by taking advantage of their complementary characteristics.
Adherence to the Principle of Self-determination and Winning Support from the International Community
The fate of the nation should be determined by the South and North Koreans themselves.
Nonetheless, it will require the commitment and support of the international community to end the division of the Korean Peninsula and secure regional peace.
Based on the principle that intra-Korean issues must be resolved through direct contact between the two Koreas, the Administration will continue efforts to persuade Pyongyang to enter a dialogue with it.
At the same time, the Administration will try its best through various means, including the ongoing Four-party Talks, to win the support of the international community for its efforts to create durable peace and reduce tension on the Korean Peninsula.
Implementation of North Korea Policy Based on Consensus
Public support is an important element in the successful implementation of any North Korea policy. The Administration£§s North Korea policy will never be made in secret nor will it be implemented through private channels.
The Administration will maintain the transparency of its decision-making process and will implement its policies with consistency and efficiency in order to win public support.
4. Directions for Implementation
Reactivation of the 1991 Basic Agreement through Dialogue
The Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression and Exchanges and Cooperation Between the South and the North to which the two governments gave their full consent is a sacred document.
Consequently, the two Koreas need to start implementing it to improve relations.
As president Kim Dae-jung said in his inaugural address, the Administration will promote intra-Korean dialogue in various fields, including making a proposal for an exchange of special envoys to reaffirm the intention and willingness of the highest authorities of the South and the North to implement the Basic Agreement of 1991.
Once intra-Korean dialogue is resumed, the two Koreas will work on the areas where they can more readily cooperate with each other and will gradually expand their efforts to implement the Basic Agreement in other areas.
Separation of Business from Politics
The Administration will respect the right of private businesses to decide themselves whether to expand economic interaction with North Korea or not. Economic activities should be promoted first in the areas the North needs our assistance most urgently and mainly where intra-Korean cooperation would be beneficial for both Koreas.
The Administration will, thus, encourage businessmen to visit North Korea, raise the ceiling on the size of investment in North Korea by South Korean businessmen, simplify the legal procedures for intra-Korean interaction and take all other necessary measures to expand interaction between two Koreas.
Reunions of Separated Families
Though more than half a century has already passed since the division of the country, approximately ten million people on both sides of the Military Demarcation Line do not know the fate of their relatives. Because many of these people are now dying of old age, the Administration has placed top priority on family reunions.
The Administration will drastically simplify legal procedures, making it easier for senior members of the separated families to visit their relatives in the North. The Administration will also subsidize the reunion expenses of those people who cannot afford to make the trip.
In addition, the Administration will promote talks between the South and North Korean Red Cross societies to help relieve the suffering of the separated families. It will also support the efforts for family reunion in third countries or at international events.
Once intra-Korean dialogue is resumed, the Administration will work to establish a reunion and postal-exchange center and visits between separated family members on both sides of the border as called for in the 1991 Basic Agreement.
The Administration will continue to provide food aid to North Korea through international organizations in a humanitarian effort to help fellow Koreans suffering from a severe food shortage.
It will also encourage civilian organizations to provide aid to North Korea. At the same time, it will continue efforts to discuss with the North Korean authorities the possibility of government-level assistance.
In addition, the Administration will assist Pyongyang's own efforts to find a more fundamental solution to the chronic food shortage.
Continued Commitment to the Light-water Reactor Project
The light-water reactors are being provided to North Korea not only in return for its freezing of its own nuclear program but also as a part of a long-term joint national development plan.
The Administration is committed to playing a central role in the KEDO project as it promised the international community it would do.
The Administration will resolve the issue of sharing the financial burden of the project with the United States and Japan as soon as possible and complete the construction as scheduled.
However, taking the current financial difficulties into account, the Administration will find a reasonable way to minimize the burden on the South Korean people.
Creation of a Peaceful Environment on the Korean Peninsula
The creation of peace on the Korean Peninsula is an issue of concern not only to South and North Korea but also to the international community, which is already deeply involved on the Korean Peninsula through the light-water reactor project, the Four-party Talks and food aid to North Korea.
With a belief in self-determination, the Administration will endeavor to reactivate the Basic Agreement through intra-Korean dialogue. At the same time, it will use the Four-party Talks as a vehicle to expand cooperation with neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the international community and to create a durable peace structure on the peninsula.
The Administration will also try to initiate a regional security forum for peace and cooperation in Northeast Asia.
If, in harmony with the improvement of intra-Korean relations, North Korea wishes to expand relations with the United States and Japan as well as with various international organizations, the Administration will provide indirect support for Pyongyang's efforts to do so, thereby helping the North to become a responsible member of the international community.


Full Text of North-South Joint Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression, and Cooperation and Exchange


Following is a full text of the Agreement on Reconciliation, nonaggression, and Cooperation and Exchange between the North and the South adopted at the third-day session of the fifth north-south high-level talks in Seoul on Dec. 13, 1991.
Pursuant to the will of all the fellow countrymen desirous of the peaceful reunification of the divided country, reaffirming the three principles of national reunification laid down in the July 4th North-South Joint Statement;
Pledging themselves to remove the political and military confrontation for the achievement of national reconciliation, for the prevention of invasion and conflicts by the armed forces, for the realization of detente and for the guarantee of peace;
To realize many-sized cooperation and exchange for the promotion of the common interests and prosperity of the nation; and
To make concerted efforts to achieve peaceful reunification, admitting that the relationship between the sides is not the one between countries but a special one formed temporarily in the process of advancing towards reunification, the north and the south have agreed as follows:
1. North-South Reconciliation
Article 1. The north and the south shall recognize and respect the system that exists on the other side.
Article 2. The north and the south shall not interfere in the internal affairs of the other side.
Article 3. The north and the south shall cease to abuse and slander the other side.
Article 4. The north and the south shall refrain from all acts aimed at destroying and overthrowing the other side.
Article 5. The north and the south shall make concerted efforts to convert the present armistice into a durable peace between the north and the south and observe the present Military Armistice Agreement until such peace has been achieved.
Article 6. The north and the south shall discontinue confrontation and competition, cooperate with each other and make concerted efforts for national dignity and interests in the international arena.
Article 7. The north and the south shall set up and operate a north-south liaison office at Panmunjom within three months after the effectuation of this agreement in order to ensure close contacts and prompt consultation with each other.
Article 8. The north and the south shall form a north-south political subcommittee within the framework of the full-dress talks in one month after the effectuation of this agreement in order to discuss concrete measures for implementing and observing the agreement on north-south reconciliation.
2. North-South Nonaggression
Article 9. The north and the south shall not use arms against the other side, nor shall they invade the other by force of arms.
Article 10. The north and the south shall settle differences and disputes between them peacefully through dialogue and negotiation.
Article 11. The north and the south shall designate as the demarcation line and zone of nonaggression the Military Demarcation Line which was laid down in the agreement on the military armistice dated July 27, 1953 and the area which has so far been within the jurisdiction of the sides.
Article 12. In order to implement and guarantee nonaggression the north and the south shall set up and operate a north-south joint military committee within three months after the effectuation of this agreement.
The north-south joint military committee shall discuss and promote the realization of military confidence-building and disarmament, such as notification of and control over the transfer of large units and military exercises, use of the Demilitarized Zone for peaceful purposes, exchange of military personnel and information, the realization of phased arms cutdown including the removal of mass destruction weapons and offensive capability and their verification.
Article 13. The north and the south shall install and operate direct telephone links between the military authorities of the sides in order to prevent the outbreak and escalation of accidental armed conflicts.
Article 14. The north and the south shall form a north-south military sub-committee within the framework of the full-dressed talks in one month after the effectuation of this agreement and discuss concrete measures for the implementation and observance of the agreement on nonaggression and the removal of military confrontation.
3. North-South Cooperation and Exchange
Article 15. The north and the south shall effect economic cooperation and exchange, such as joint development of resources and the exchange of goods in the form of exchange within the nation and joint investment for the coordinated and balanced development of the national economy and for the promotion of the well-being of the whole nation.
Article 16. The north and the south shall effect cooperation and exchange in various fields, such as science, technology, education, literature and art, public health, sports, environment and mass media including newspapers, radio, TV and publications.
Article 17. The north and the south shall effect free travels and contacts between members of the nation.
Article 18. The north and the south shall effect free correspondence, travels, meetings and visits between the separated families and relatives and their reunion based on their free will and take measures regarding other problems awaiting humanitarian solution.
Article 19. The north and the south shall connect severed railways and roads and open sea and air routes.
Article 20. The north and the south shall install and connect the facilities necessary for the exchange of post and telecommunication and ensure secrecy in this sphere of exchange.
Article 21. The north and the south shall cooperate with each other in economic, cultural and many other fields in the international arena and jointly conduct external activities.
Article 22. For the implementation of the agreement on effecting cooperation and exchange in various fields, such as economy and culture, the north and the south shall form a north-south joint economic cooperation and exchange committee and other departmental joint committees within three months after the effectuation of this agreement.
Article 23. In order to discuss concrete measures for the implementation and observance of the agreement on cooperation and exchange between the north and the south, the two parts shall establish a north-south cooperation and exchange subcommittee within the framework of the full-dressed talks in one month after the effectuation of the agreement.
4. Amendments and Effectuation
Article 24. This agreement can be amended and supplemented by mutual consent.
Article 25. This agreement shall become effective as from the date when the north and the south exchange its text after they go through necessary formalities.
Inked in December 13, 1991
By
Premier, DPRK Administration Council Head of the north side's chief delegate of the delegation to the N-S high-level talks.
Yon Hyong Muk

Prime Minister, ROK Chief delegation of the south side's delegation to the S-N high-level talks.
Chong Won Sik


Kim Dae-jung's Inaugural Speech

(The following is an unofficial English translation of the inaugural speech of President Kim Dae-jung, entitled, ``The Government of the People: Reconciliation and a New Leap Forward.'' Translation of Korea Herald. Ed.)
The historic significance of today's inaugural ceremony is great, indeed; today is a proud day when a democratic transition of power is taking place on this soil for the first time.
Moreover, it is a historic day when a government is, at last, being born that embraces both democracy and the economy as the nation's goals.
This is truly the ``Government of the People'' mandated by the power of the people.
While dedicating all the glory and blessing to you, I firmly pledge to serve you, body and soul.
We will usher in a new millennium in three years. The dawn of the 21st century does not merely mark the beginning of a new century, but a start of a new revolution. Having passed through five great revolutions from the human revolution that began with the inhabitation of human beings on earth, through the agricultural revolution, urban revolution, ideological revolution and industrial revolution, humankind is now entering a new revolutionary age.
The world is now advancing from industrial societies where tangible natural resources were the primary factors of economic development into knowledge and information societies where intangible knowledge and information will be the driving power for economic development.
The information revolution is transforming the age of many national economies into an age of one world economy - turning the world into a global village. The information age means that everyone will have access to information whenever and wherever and will be able to easily and cheaply make use of it. Only a democratic society will be able to take full advantage of benefits of the information age.
Approaching this great transitional period in the history of civilization, we must do out utmost and actively meet new challenges. Unfortunately, however, at this very important juncture, we have run into a foreign exchange crisis which is the most serious national crisis since the Korean War. We are faced with a crisis that could bankrupt our country. Burdened by an enormous debt, we are anxious to settle the maturing foreign debts that are surging over us every day.
It, indeed, is a stupefying situation we find ourselves in. The reason we are barely escaping from catastrophe is because of cooperation from all of you, my fellow countrymen, who are united with patriotism, and the assistance of our friends, including the United States, Japan, Canada, Australia and the EU nations, as well as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Asia Development Bank.
Consumer prices and unemployment will rise this year. Incomes will drop and an increasing number of companies will go bankrupt. All of us are being asked to shed sweat and tears now.
We must calmly and squarely look back to find out how we have arrived at his state of affairs. This unfortunate development would not have taken place unless the political, economic and financial leaders of this country were tainted by a collusive link between politics and business and by government-directed banking practices and unless the large business groups have set up a large number of uncompetitive subsidiaries.
I cannot help but feel limitless pain and anger when I think of you, the innocent citizens, who are bearing the brunt of the suffering over the consequences of the wrongdoing committed by those in leadership positions.
In facing today's difficulties, however, you have displayed amazing patriotism and resilience. Amidst the shock dealt to us in this IMF period, we have attained the remarkable accomplishment of peacefully transferring power from the ruling to an opposition party.
To overcome the national crisis, you have undertaken a campaign to collect gold and have managed to collect $2 billion worth already. I am boundlessly proud of your patriotism, which is more precious than the gold itself. Thank you very much.
Meanwhile, our workers are participating in pain sharing by voluntarily freezing wages and the like, despite mounting difficulties in their daily lives. Businesses have helped register a substantial current account surplus for the past three consecutive months by making all-out efforts to increase exports. This demonstration of the patriotism and resilience of the Korean people is earning us respect around the world. Labor, management and the government laid a foundation for overcoming the national crisis by reaching a grand compromise through dialogue. What a proud thing it is! Along with all the people, I want to loudly applaud the representatives of the Labor-Management-Government Committee. I earnestly appeal to the opposition, which is the majority party in the National Assembly; we will never be able to overcome today's crisis without cooperation from you. I will consult with you on all issues; you, in turn, must help me if only for one year- this year ``when the nation is standing on the brink of disaster. I believe my wishes are shared by all the citizens.
Right now, this country is undergoing a time of frustration and a crisis in all areas including politics, the economy, society, diplomacy, national security and South-North relations. To overcome these, we must carry out comprehensive reform.
Political reform must precede everything else. Participatory democracy must be put into practice; the people must be respected as masters and must act like masters. Only then can national administration become transparent and corruption disappear. I will do whatever it takes to realize politics by the people and politics in which the people truly become the masters.
The Government of the People will not indulge in political retaliation of any kind. It will not condone discrimination and preferential treatment of any kind. I firmly pledge here and now that there will not be a government for one region, or discrimination against a province any longer.
The government will be made more efficient by bearing its share of the pain. A large portion of the power and functions that have been by now concentrated in the central government will be transferred to the private sector and local autonomous governments. On the other hand, we will make strengthened efforts to protect the life an property of the people. We will also endeavor to protect the environment and expand social welfare. ``A small but effective government'' is the goal of the Government of the People.
The biggest task facing the Government of the People is to overcome the economic crisis and make our economy take off once again. The Government of the People will push democracy and economic development in parallel. Democracy and the market economy are two sides of a coin and two wheels of a cart. If they were separated, we could never succeed. Every nation that has embraced both democracy and a market economy has been successful.
Nations, on the other hand, that have rejected democracy and accepted only a market economy have ended up suffering disastrous setbacks as illustrated by Nazist Germany and militarist Japan. These two countries, too, accepted both democracy and a market economy after World War II and have come to enjoy the freedom and prosperity they have today.
When democracy and a market economy develop together in harmony, there cannot be unsavory collusion between politics and business, government-directed financing and irregularities and corruption. I firmly believe that we can overcome today's crisis by practicing democracy and a market economy in parallel.
In order to revitalize the economy, we must stabilize prices. Without price stability, no economic policy can succeed. Large corporations and small businesses are equally important. We will help both of them develop by guaranteeing the independence of large corporations and extending concentrated support to small and medium-size businesses. Furthermore, we will uphold the principle of competition. We will forge a nation where businessmen who earn a great deal of foreign currency by manufacturing the best quality but cheapest products in the world are respected.
Acting on our determination to build a leading nation in technology, we will resolutely pursue a policy to make our nation strong in state-of-the-art technologies. Venture companies are the flower of the new century. By actively fostering them, we must produce high value-added products and make our economy develop in leaps and bounds. Venture companies will create a lot of jobs and greatly contribute to reducing unemployment.
The five great reforms that big business groups have pledged to the Government of the People to undertake -namely, transparency of corporate management, an end to the practice of guaranteeing loans among group subsidiaries, the building of a healthy financial structure, adherence to core business lines and support for small businesses, and increased accountability assumed by majority share holders and mangers - will be carried out by all means.
This is the only way for businesses to survive and for our economy to make another leap forward. The government will thoroughly guarantee the independence of business companies. However, it will sternly demand that they make efforts for self-reform.
The Government of the People will also do its utmost to induce foreign investment while at the same time trying to help boost exports. Inducement of foreign capital is the most effective way to pay back our foreign debts, strengthen the competitiveness of businesses and raise the transparency of the economy.
We must take agriculture very seriously and realize self-sufficiency in race. We will strongly push a policy to lessen the debt burden of farming and fishing households, provide them with disaster compensation, guarantee the fair prices of farm and fishery products, improve education in farming villages as a matter priority. In so doing, we will help raise incomes and enhance the welfare of farmers and fishermen.
If we push appropriate economic reforms with the help of the patriotic and determined people of this country, I have no doubt whatsoever that we will be able to overcome today's difficulties and embark on a new path of prosperity by the second half of next year.
I need and ask for your trust and full support. I pledge to you all that I will satisfy your expectations without fail.
We need a revolution of mind to build a healthy society. By a revolution of mind, I mean respect for each person and adherence to justice as the highest value. We must realize by all means a society where people who live honestly succeed and those who do not fail. We must share not only pain but rewards and joys. We must shed sweat together and reap fruit together. I will take the lead and devote my all to realizing such a spiritual revolution and righteous society.
We must give opportunities to work to the elderly and disabled if they are capable. If they are not, we must give them our heart and warm care. I will be ``the president of the people'' who will wipe the tears of the alienated and encourage those in despair.
We, as a people, have a high level of education and profound cultural tradition. We are a people who have enormous potential to prosper in the age of information of the 21st century.
The new government will make sure that the young generations will be able to become competent players in the knowledge and information society. We will teach computers in primary schools and ensure that high school graduates can choose computer science on the university entrance examinations. We will lay a firm foundation for a leading nation in the information age by making it the most computer-friendly country in the world.
Education reform is a key that will solve a mountain of problems in our society today. We will reform the university entrance examination system and forge a society where ability counts. We will free young people from extracurricular studies and relieve parents from the heavy monetary burden of private tutoring. We will realize education for whole men and women, emphasizing knowledge, moral values and physical fitness equally. I take this opportunity to firmly pledge that I will carry out such educational reforms at all costs.
We must pour our energy into globalizing Korean culture. We must embrace and develop the high values that are contained in traditional culture. Culture is also one of the rising industries of the 21st century. Tourism, the convention industry, the audio-visual industry, and unique cultural commodities are a treasure trove for which a limitless market is awaiting.
The middle class is the foundation of the nation. I will do my best so that middle-class people - salaried men and women, small businessmen and self-employed persons - can lead a stable and happy life.
The Government of the People will make strenuous efforts to protect women's rights and realize their potentials. The wall of sexual discrimination in homes, work places and throughout society must be removed.
Young people are the nation's hope as well as strength. The government will not spare any effort to support the promotion of their education, culture and welfare.
The 21st century will be an era characterized by both competition and cooperation.
Diplomacy in the age of globalization will require a change in ways of thinking. The new ways of thinking must be different from those prevailing during the Cold War. Diplomacy in the 21st century will center around the economy and culture. We must keep expanding trade, investment, tourism and cultural exchanges in order to make our way in the age of boundless competition which will take place against a backdrop of cooperation.
Our national security has to be independent collective security. Based on the unity of the people and strong armed forces with high morale, we must keep strengthening our independent security capabilities. AT the same time, we will never neglect collective security, but further reinforce the ROK-U.S. security arrangement. For the establishment of peace on the Korean Peninsula, we will make utmost efforts to bring the four-party meeting to success.
Inter-Korean relations must be evolved on the basis of reconciliation and cooperation as well as the establishment of peace. The Cold War-style South-North relations which have not allowed members of separated families, for over a half century, to ascertain even whether their own parents and brothers and sisters were alive or dead, let alone carry on dialogue and exchanges, must end as soon as possible. I cannot but feel boundless shame before our ancestors who maintained one unified country for more than 1,300 years.
The path toward the resolution of South-North problems is already open. It lies in the implementation of the South-North Basic Agreement, adopted Dec. 13, 1991. The authorities in the South and the North have already reached complete agreement on three issues, namely, reconciliation, exchanges and cooperation, and non-aggression between the South and the North. If only we carry out these agreements faithfully, we can successfully resolve inter-Korean problems and move forward on a broad path toward unification.
Taking this occasion, I would like to pronounce three principles as to North Korea: First, we will never tolerate armed provocation of any kind.
Second, we do not have any intention to undermine or absorb North Korea.
Third, we will actively pursue reconciliation and cooperation between the South and the North beginning with those areas which can be made available to us.
As exchanges and cooperation between the South and the North get underway, we are prepared to render our support even if North Korea pushes for interaction and cooperation with our friends including the United States and Japan as well as international organizations.
Despite the current economic difficulties, the new government will carry out the promises the Republic of Korea made in connection with the construction of light-water reactors in North Korea. Nor will we be parsimonious in extending food aid to North Korea from the government and private organizations through reasonable means.
I earnestly appeal to North Korean authorities. Numerous members of separated families have grown old and are passing away. We must let those ones separated from their families in the South and the North meet and communicate with each other as soon as possible. On this point, I take note of some positive signs North Korea has shown of late. I also hope that the two sides will expand cultural and academic exchanges as well as economic exchanges on the basis of separating the economy from politics.
I hope that interaction between the South and North will expand in many fields based on the South-North Basic Agreement. First of all, I propose an exchange of special envoys to promote the implementation of the South-North Basic Agreement. I am ready to agree to a summit meeting, if North Korea wants.
The new government will strengthen close ties with ethnic Koreans overseas and will make efforts to help protect their interests. I will actively help them lead stable lives and be proud of their ethnic roots while fulfilling their duties and exercising their rights as citizens of their adoptive countries.
We are now standing at a crossroad where we can either march forward or retreat. Let us take powerful strides forward, overcoming the trials that are obstructing our path. Let us open a new age during which we will overcome the national crisis and make a new leap forward.
We enjoy the proud heritage of our 5,000-year history; the spirit of our forefathers are urging us on.
Just as our forefathers saved the country with indomitable will whenever they met national ordeals, let us write a great chapter in our history by overcoming today's difficulties and undertaking another leap forward. Let us turn today's crisis into a blessing. We can do it. The story of our success from the ruins of the Korean War proves it. I will take the lead. Let us resolutely march forward, hand in hand. Let us overcome the national crisis. Let us make another leap forward.
Thus, let us take the Republic of Korea to new heights of glory once more.