Documents

Why Has US Thoroughly Failed in Its 70 Years-long Imperialist War against DPRK? by Dr. Kiyul Chung

[Editor¡¯s note: The following paper in 3 Parts was originally prepared to present before the 70th Anniversary International Symposium on the occasion of Kim Il Sung University Foundation in Pyongyang, DPRK in September 29 - October 1, 2016.
The 4th Media believes Dr. Chung¡¯s paper might be beneficial for its global readership hopefully to understand better the ¡°anti-imperialist¡± struggle DPRK has endlessly waged ever since the Korean peninsula has been forcibly divided by the Washington¡¯s ¡°Imperial Ambition¡± in 1945. However, the topic the author persistently dealt or wrestled with throughout the paper should be a non-issue or a less-readily acceptable issue to many.

But, since both the worst W Bush and Obama era ever since early 2000s, specifically with the disastrous and helpless experiences from the cases of former Yugoslavia (in Clinton era), Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, Libya, Syria, Yemen and many other defenseless nations around the world which had been either already destroyed into shatters and ruins or still being bombed daily for years, it seems many in the world today might have a better (or much better?) position finally to understand at least what the nonstop DPRK-US confrontation for over 70 years is all about.

Therefore, some of the core arguments Prof. Chung presented in his paper should be quite controversial and/or for many hard to swallow to agree with. The 4th Media however hopes its global readership to wrestle with a rather long paper which painstakingly dealt with certainly themost (worst) demonized nation on earth the ¡°North Korea¡± of its ¡°not-known-before (or probably never been introduced) -to the world issue¡±, called, the ¡°Military-first Politics¡°. Best wishes!]

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On Historical Significance of ¡°Songun (i.e., Military-First) Politics¡±-Part I

CONTENTS

Preface
Introduction
Linguistic Analyses and Interpretations
The DPRK-US Struggle and a New Future for the Humanity
A New Russia-China Alliance and the Failed ¡°Anglo-American Empire¡±
The Songun Politics is the Answer
¡°Parallel Strategy to Develop Simultaneously both Economy and the Nuclear Power¡±
Most Challenging, Unpredictable Task: ¡°Leadership Succession¡±
¡°North Korean Collapsing Theories¡± Made in USA
The Game Is Over: ¡°Collapse of Collapsing Theories¡± and the Peace Treaty Issue
Rapidly Growing Geopolitical Awareness on the DPRK¡¯s Parallel Strategy
Military-First Revolution Continues Through Generations
An Undeniable Historical Fact: It¡¯s the US Who Has Always Failed
The First-ever Defeat the US Imperialists Had in Its War History
The Korean Holocaust and Other Unrecognized Holocausts
Conclusive remarks
Most Extreme Asymmetrical War, Cultural Imperialism, Great Suffering
Songun Politics, US President¡¯s Admittance of Military Defeat

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Preface

This short paper is prepared to present at the September 29th International Symposium on the occasion of 70th Anniversary of Kim Il Sung University Foundation in Pyongyang, Korea in 2016. The paper will attempt to explore some of the Historical Significance of Songun Politics of Democratic People¡¯s Republic of Korea (DPRK, aka, ¡°North Korea¡±) in the context of still ongoing 70 years-old DPRK-US confrontations.

Let¡¯s find out first where that Korean language Songun which literally means ¡°military-first¡± is originated from. The still relatively new expression has become broadly popularized ever since Chairman Kim Jong Il era which began since mid 1990s. In fact, this new sociopolitical language was a newly-reinvented wording from late President Kim Il Sung¡¯s ¡°Chong-dae-woo-sun¡± principle of the 1920s-40s. The latter literally means ¡®gun(or military)-priority¡¯. It was popular ever since Kim¡¯s legendary ¡®anti-Japanese armed struggle¡® started from late 1920s.

Let¡¯s find out a little bit more about how DPRK officially defines the word Songun. Its official definition can be found from the nation¡¯s official webpage. However, without changing its fundamental meanings, I tried to shorten the nation¡¯s official definition by editing, dropping, and/or changing some of the phrases, sentences, words but not the meanings:

¡°Songun politics is rooted in the military-priority ideology that embodies the Juche [i.e., ¡°self-reliance¡±] idea. The late president Kim Il Sung is a founder of Songun ideology ¡¦ of the Songun revolution. ¡¦.. [Organizing] ¡°Down-with-Imperialism Union¡± by [Kim] in October, 1926 was ¡¦ to crush the Japanese imperialists. The two pistols left over by his father ¡¦ [and] the ¡°Down-with-Imperialism Union¡± [point] out a staunch anti-imperialist and independent stand are the starting point of Songun ideology, [the] ideology of giving precedence to arms and the military. ¡¦ [The late president] Kim put forward the ¡¦ armed struggle as the principal line of anti-Japanese national liberation struggle ¡¦ in June 19, 1930 and thereby proclaimed the birth of Songun ideology ¡¦ He formed the Anti-Japanese People¡¯s Guerrilla Army, a first revolutionary armed force on April 25, 1932 and started the anti-Japanese armed struggle, which was a historic event announcing the beginning of the Songun revolutionary leadership. ¡¦ For almost 70 years starting from the mid-1920s when he embarked on the road of revolution with a high ambition for national liberation, he held fast to the line of giving priority to arms and the military and carried out the military-priority principle through. ¡¦

In the 1970s and 1980s, [Chairman Kim Jong Il] [was] determined ¡¦ to work hard to lead the efforts to strengthen the army both politically, ideologically, militarily and technically. In the 1990s, there came to be a great change in [geo]political composition of the world and the balance of [global powers]. The US and the imperialist reactionary forces intensified [unprecedentedly aggressive] military maneuvers to stifle the country¡¦. Chairman Kim, based on a scientific analysis of the changed [geopolitical] situation, declared the Songun politics [the supreme politics of the nation] ¡¦. At the 10th Supreme People¡¯s Assembly of the DPRK in September, 1998, ¡¦ the Songun politics of the party is the main political mode of socialism which has begun in the era of President Kim and systemized in the hardest time of history [during Chairman Kim era]. Chairman Kim determined that the line of the Songun revolution be held fast to as long as [the US-led imperialist forces continue their aggressive policies against DPRK]. He has unfolded the Songun politics and defended socialism with the might of the Songun politics and advanced the independent cause of the mankind.¡±

Introduction

Linguistic Analyses and Interpretations


The philosophy of military-first(priority) Korean revolution however shouldn¡¯t be understood as a one-dimensional and exclusive concept limited to strictly military-related matters only. Rather I believe it should be understood as a multidimensional and inclusive concept. Thus I don¡¯t think the ¡°military-first¡± philosophy mechanically means the military-only or military-centered idea. Even if it says ¡®military-first¡¯, I believe it should be interpreted something as a ¡°people-centered military-first strategy¡±.

From an inclusive and multidimensional perspective, it can be also read as a people-first ideology. In other words, one can also argue the people-centered (or ?first) politics as a goal which should be served by the military-first politics as a tool or methodology. In any case any language I believe mustn¡¯t be read literally. What I am trying to do here is to interpret the language freely based upon logic, reason, being objective and truthful, instead read the language mechanically as in the case of over 2000 years-old controversial issues of ¡°biblical literalism¡± in Western Christianity.

Even if both Chongdaewoosun and Songun sound different from each other, however, I believe both have exactly a very same sociopolitical and philosophical meaning. Thus they shouldn¡¯t be read from the either-or concept. Instead it should be read from the both-and perspective. For they seem identical each other in their historical, sociopolitical and philosophical meanings.

However, what most matters here with regard to the above-discussed issues is I believe the ¡°human-centeredness¡± or ¡°people-centeredness¡± which is abundantly clear as in the following arguments explicated by the founder of ¡°Songun language,¡± the Chairman Kim. In the discussions of Songun politics, Kim emphatically highlights its ¡°Root is the Juche (i.e., self-reliance) thought.¡± However, he simultaneously identifies the Juche idea as a ¡°human-centered thought.¡±

If so then, one can conclusively argue the self-reliant military-first politics is essentially a ¡®people-centered politics.¡¯ I think this human dimension is the most crucial aspect in any discussions of DPRK¡¯s military-first politics. For example, Kim emphasizes that human dimension as in the following way, ¡°It¡¯s thoroughly a pro-people politics¡°.

Ever since late President Kim had begun his legendary anti-Japanese armed struggle since late 1920s, DPRK seems to have never dropped, negotiated and/or revised under any circumstances the above-discussed human-centered military-first revolution as their most fundamental sociopolitical and philosophical foundation of the party (Workers¡¯ Party of Korea), the military (Korea People¡¯s Army) and the nation (DPRK).

Based upon the above discussions, though very limited, one can also argue if the nation¡¯s top leadership from the first generation to the present hadn¡¯t made that human-centered military-first principle as the nation¡¯s most fundamental strategic decision, I¡¯d hardly imagine if DPRK¡¯s ¡°our style (in other words, human-centered) anti-imperialist, self-determined socialist revolution¡± might have survived or could have successfully advanced this far for over 70 years.

Some basic linguistic analyses and interpretations on the Songun language we¡¯ve just discussed above hopefully could help our discussions on the main topic the Songun Politics the author will argue in the remainder of this paper.

The DPRK-US Struggle and a New Future for the Humanity

Like either all the other ¡°collapsed¡± nations including the former Soviet Union, its satellite socialist Eastern European block countries or other ¡°destroyed¡± states which were then prone to anti-imperialist, self-determination, socialist principles such as the former Yugoslavia in mid 1990s, Libya in mid 2010s, etc., if DPRK, too, had been either collapsed or destroyed, or both, then I believe today¡¯s favorably changing geopolitical power relations for the sake of humanity¡¯s new future inconceivable.

In other words, like many other failed states during the last quarter century, if DPRK, too, had failed already, then it¡¯s quite doubtful if the following several most representative anti-imperialist struggles [as in the following cases such as Cuba, Iran, Syria, etc. for already several decades, and lately Russia and now even China against the very same enemy, i.e., the US-led global imperialist camp] could have taken place as in the way the world is witnessing today.

For the sake of discussion, here let me present a possibly very controversial argument such as If the world had not known the last 70 years of historically unprecedented DPRK-US confrontation (hereafter, D-U struggle), one could hardly think of today¡¯s rapidly changing geopolitical power politics which I believe seem absolutely favorable for the humanity¡¯s new future.

By the way, today, unlike the past, there seem not much disputes if one could define the D-U struggle which has endlessly continued ever since the end of WWII as the longest, the staunchest and the never-back-down anti-imperialist, self-determined socialist struggle.

I don¡¯t think there won¡¯t be much disagreements now if one argues the D-U struggle isn¡¯t the One-on-One type of match but instead it¡¯s the fight against the US-controlled world in terms of DPRK alone fighting against not only the historically unprecedented 21st Century Global Empire but also the Washington/Tel Aviv-controlled UN, IMF, World Bank, ADB, EU, NATO plus Western and other vassal states around the world for over 70 years. Therefore, the D-U struggle in the Modern World History seems the only case the history has never known in th past.

Indeed, if the still-continuing D-U struggle hadn¡¯t succeeded this far, then I hardly doubt today¡¯s global power politics won¡¯t be the same as we know today. By the same token, if the D-U struggle didn¡¯t exist, I believe today¡¯s rapidly restructuring global power relations favorable toward the humanity¡¯s new future won¡¯t be the same either. For examples, BRICS, SCO, EEU, AIIB, etc. including the rapidly-merging China-Russia strategic alliance would be some of the most representative examples to support the above-discussed arguments.

Again for the sake of discussion, I dare to argue if DPRK had NOT successfully put down, repeatedly ridiculed or categorically defeated Washington¡¯s each and every imperialist war of aggressions for 70 years, it seems also hardly improbable if one of the most representative anti-imperialist struggles in the world today like the great Russia-US confrontation (hereafter, R-U struggle) wouldn¡¯t either have taken place as we see today.

It seems it¡¯s now a more readily agreeable knowledge DPRK had been singled out for Washington¡¯s psychological warfare in global scale which has been always accompanied by vicious demonization campaigns to further isolate and to cut off the DPRK completely from the international communities. Of course, Washington¡¯s demonization campaign has been also fully supported by its endless DPRK-suffocation policy by nonstop economic blockades and financial sanctions.

Last quarter century, as well-known, even China and Russia participated in the US-led UNSC sanctions. While the world has continued to sanction DPRK, in the meantime US has also stepped up its nonstop nuclear war threats as well. However, since early 1990s, almost every nation on earth, including China and Russia until recently, wouldn¡¯t have dared to challenge a monster-like Global Empire.

Therefore, as a most probable result from the above-mentioned all that global anti-DPRK suffocation strategies, if the ¡°North Korea¡± had been already wiped out a quarter century ago like the Soviets and many other defenseless nations, I hardly doubt what the world witnesses today in the 21st Century global power politics wouldn¡¯t be same as we know these days.

I don¡¯t think it¡¯d be unnecessarily much difficult to understand what we¡¯re talking about here if we¡¯d remember what¡¯d happened to, for example, the 1990s¡¯ Russia. We all remember what¡¯d happened to Russia then. The world particularly remembers what¡¯d happened to Russia right after the former Soviet Union was completely dissolved in early 1990s. What¡¯d happened to Russia then was well summarized in a book, titled, ¡°Disaster Capitalism¡± written by a world-renowned lady journalist in US, Naomi Klein.

As she powerfully argued in her 1997 best-seller book, the world remembers how the then thoroughly defeated, humiliated, and downgraded Russia (like a ¡®2nd class state¡¯ from once one of the most powerful, the greatest and the internationally-most-respected nations in the world) and most of its great national wealth as a whole had been robbed by the US-controlled NATO powers.

Of course, all that American-style ¡°highway robbery¡±, nicknamed lately as ¡®Bankster Imperialism¡±, had been carried out by Wall Street¡¯s so-called ¡°neoliberal economic advisors,¡± often called then the ¡°Chicago Boys.¡± Klein argues the whole Russia then was systematically robbed by the West.
However, only after a short quarter century, as a big surprise to the world, the great Russia is back. She is amazingly back now in full force. President Vladimir Putin is there. He¡¯s right there standing tall not only for a new future of his great nation but also for a world¡¯s new future.

A New Russia-China Alliance and the Failed ¡°Anglo-American Empire¡±

As we¡¯ve discussed above, China-US confrontation (hereafter, C-U struggle) won¡¯t be much different from the R-U struggle either, though there seem varied differences between the two nations¡¯ anti-imperialist struggles against the same US-controlled world.

For more than a quarter century, in the name of ¡°reform, opening door policy,¡± no matter what, China had danced in a way with the US, i.e., the real ¡°Evil Empire¡± the term the former late US president Ronald Reagan had used against the former Soviet Union in 1980s. By the way, if he¡¯d used it to name his own mother nation instead, the once-globally-popularized infamous ¡®Evil Empire¡¯ term might have earned much supports and even some respects from around the world.

For some periods in the past, many Chinese both in the leadership and the ordinary people seemed to haven¡¯t fully realized how evil that empire is. But lately, China, too, seems to have further deeply realized what kind of satanic Empire they¡¯d been dancing with for about 30 some years is all about. A more serious geopolitical realization seems to have come in the minds of national leadership in the wake of the US-instigated, -manufactured and further -inflamed South China Sea (SCS) conflicts.

It seems a more number of people have come to realize how cunning, vicious and satanic Washington¡¯s divide-and-conquer strategy is all about as they see in the case of SCS conflict. For example, US has deceitfully played with China¡¯s most South East Asian neighbors, like specifically Vietnam and the Philippines, go against China. Again lately a lot more number of Chinese people seem to have much more seriously figured out how anxious, frantic and even satanic thepsychopathic Zionists-controlled Washington is all about.

No matter what, how and why, even if they had once danced with the US, the more China seems to have realized who they¡¯d danced with, the more Beijing seems unwilling to date with Washington any longer.

For the former under any circumstances isn¡¯t the evil empire in anyway like the latter. The two nations fundamentally differ from each other almost in everything. Therefore, from the very beginning since early 1980s, their unlikely (in other words, incongruous, dubious or inconceivable)honeymoon seemed to have been destined not to succeed for long. China is a fundamentally different nation from the way USA had been built upon the full of overflowing bloods of over 100 million Native Americans.

The utterly blood-soaked European colonialists for over 5 centuries since 1492 had not only created a massive continental ¡°blood sea¡± covering the whole (North, Central, South and the Caribbean islands) Americas but also made numerous more blood seas all over the world such as the Philippines since late 19th Century, Korea since mid 20th Century, Vietnam in the first latter part of 20th Century, Iraq both in late 20th and early 21st Century, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, Yemen all in early 21st Century. China never be the same sort of nation like the US by any standard.

By nature, therefore, as if nothing had happened, I don¡¯t think China can further continue to dance with that kind of utterly satanic entity anymore. So it seems the rapidly growing China-Russia alliance is a right answer for China, Russia and the whole world. However, the new China-Russia alliance definitely is never going to be like the now broken, failed, dismantled 70 years-old ¡°Anglo-American Empire¡± either. Now as well-known, the once most powerful, globally-encompassing, strongest strategic alliance for over half a century is in a free fall situation at the moment.

Anyway a never-imaginable event like the June 2016 Brexit, as one of the most mammoth geopolitical earthquakes in 21st Century specifically in terms of today¡¯s evermore unpredictable geopolitical power reshufflings, had never taken place ever since WWII. There is no doubt, even ifhell (of a) lot of and all sorts of anti-Brexit political maneuvers by Washington/Tel Aviv-instigated pro-EU forces will be definitely unfolded for an unknown period, it¡¯ll however most likely change, disrupt, and fundamentally shatter the over 500 years-old Western Imperialist alliance in a major way.

The C-U struggle therefore should be dealt from the above-discussed evermore fluctuating geopolitical power politics of the 21st Century which was just most symbolically culminated in the Brexit vote.

What I¡¯ve been arguing above with regard to both R-U and C-U struggle is about the indispensablerole the historic D-U struggle had played for about a quarter century. During that time, as a matter of fact, there was literally nobody around, except a few but not strong enough to wage a global war, i.e., the world¡¯s anti-imperialist, self-determined and socialist war against the then Only Global Superpower(OGS).

There is no doubt that a quarter century-long global war in 1990s-2000s was waged almost all by DPRK alone. However, the most important thing NOW is DPRK¡¯s struggle is not alone anymore. Since Russia and China have recently joined the global war, today¡¯s geopolitical power politics, either centered around or towards the principles of anti-imperialism and self-determination at least, isn¡¯t the same anymore.

It seems after the sovereign, oil-rich and socialist Libya was destroyed by US/NATO war criminals, both R-U and C-U struggles, as some of the most prominent but still relatively new in the world¡¯s anti-imperialist struggles, seemed to have finally taken the Satanic Nature of Zionist-controlled Washington/Tel Aviv imperialist alliance a lot more seriously than before.

It seems however the degrees of both nations¡¯ anti-imperialist struggles against the same US-controlled world still seem not the same as that of DPRK. But Third World¡¯s most representative anti-imperialist struggles like Cuba, Iran, Syria, etc. have already taken the ¡°enemy of the humanity¡± seriously almost same as that of DPRK a long time ago.

As we¡¯ve just discussed above, thus, one can cautiously predict the above-mentioned world¡¯s most representative self-determined anti-imperialist struggles against the same enemy, the 21st Century Global Empire seem to have fundamentally changed the future characteristics of global power politics irreversibly.

That fundamentally irreversible change can be most symbolically characterized as in the way as the once most powerful and omnipresent Washington power is now rapidly declining. Therefore, the OGS definitely doesn¡¯t exist anymore. There is no such thing anymore. The OGS is lost. It¡¯s gone already once for all. How? And why?
(Continue in Part II)

Prof. Kiyul Chung, Editor-in-Chief at The 4th Media, in addition to a PhD he earned in the United States, also earned another doctoral degree, called, Doctor of Sociopolitics (SPD) from DPRK in 2014.
Before he joined the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China as a Visiting Professor since September 2009, he¡¯d been teaching in the States, South Korea and China ever since mid 1980s.
While still working in China, however, since 2011, he¡¯s been also invited biannually to several universities in Japan such as Keio, Rikkyo and Korea University in Tokyo, Kyoto, Doshisha and Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto where he¡¯s been lecturing as either Visiting Professor or Guest Lecturer.
After obtaining a DPRK doctoral degree in the area of social science, he¡¯s been also called into teaching at Kim Il Sung University in Pyongyang, DPRK since March 2015.
His articles have been published around the world since 1990s in addition to his prolific Korean articles which have been published in both North and South Korean medias including independent medias in overseas Korean communities throughout the world.
Since December 1994, he¡¯s published about 300 some articles in several Korean-language medias in both Koreas.
His first English book (The Donghak Concept of God/Heaven: Religion and Social Transformation, Peter Lang Publishing Inc.) was published both in the United States and Europe in 2007.
His first two Korean books were published in the South in 2009 and 2012 respectively. His two latest Korean books were also published in the North in 2015 and 2016 as well.


Full Text -China Report on the HUMAN Rights Record of United States in 2014

The State Council Information Office of the People¡¯s Republic of China published a report titled ¡°Human Rights Record of the United States in 2014¡È on Friday.
Following is the report¡¯s full text:

Foreword

On June 25 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices once again, making comments on the human rights situations in many countries while showing not a bit of regret for or intention to improve its own terrible human rights record. Plenty of facts show that, in 2014, the U.S., a self-proclaimed human rights defender, saw no improvements in its existent human rights issues, but reported numerous new problems. While its own human rights situation was increasingly grave, the U.S. violated human rights in other countries in a more brazen manner, and was given more ¡°red cards¡± in the international human rights field.

The U.S. was haunted by spreading guns, frequent occurrence of violent crimes, which threatened citizens¡¯ civil rights. Statistics showed that the use of firearms in the U.S. was behind 69 percent of murders, while for robberies, the figure was 40 percent, and for aggravated assaults, 21.6 percent (edition.cnn.com). The excessive use of force by police officers led to many deaths, sparking public outcry. An unarmed 18-year-old African-American Michael Brown was shot dead by a white police officer named Darren Wilson in Ferguson, a town in Missouri. After the grand jury of both Missouri and New York decided to bring no charges against the white police officer, massive protests broke out in more than 170 cities nationwide (cn.nytimes.com, November 25, 2014).

The U.S. used cruel tortures indiscriminately, notably those carried out by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). To acquire intelligence from suspects of terrorism and extremism, the CIA used brutal methods, such as sleep deprivation, waterboarding, long-term solitary confinement, slamming prisoners against the wall, lashing, death threat and even ¡°rectal rehydration¡± or rectal feeding. United Nations human rights convention institutions such as the UN Human Rights Committee and the Committee Against Torture had raised their concerns over issues in the U.S., including terrible detention conditions for convicts awaiting execution, abuse of brutal methods, secret detention, indefinite arbitrary detention, and illegal wire-tapping which infringed citizens¡¯ privacy. These institutions called on the U.S. to conduct swift, effective and fair investigations into all brutal behaviors and abuse of forces of the police force (www.un.org).

The U.S. is a country with grim problems of racial discrimination, and institutional discrimination against ethnic minorities continued. Serious racial bias persisted in the police and justice systems. Minority groups and indigenous people are subject to unfairness in environment, election, health care, housing, education and other fields. In August 2014, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in its concluding observation on the periodic report of the U.S. on the latter¡¯s implementation of relevant convention, slammed the U.S. for violating the rights of ethnic minorities, indigenous people, immigrants and other minority groups. It criticized the fact that members of racial and ethnic minorities continued to be disproportionately arrested, incarcerated and subjected to harsher sentences (tbinternet.ohchr.org).

Money is a deciding factor in the U.S. politics, and the U.S. citizens¡¯ political rights were not properly protected. Despite the highest midterm election spending in history, general election voter turnout for the 2014 midterms was the lowest since World War II. ¡°Dark money¡± flowed into elections, and the voting rights of racial minorities and other groups were intentionally suppressed. A few interest groups with power were able to influence the government¡¯s decision-making. As a renowned scholar pointed out sharply, the U.S. democratic system was experiencing a crisis of representation. ¡°Ordinary citizens feel that their supposedly democratic government no longer truly reflects their interests and is under the control of a variety of shadowy elites (Foreign Affairs, September/October 2014).¡±

Although the U.S. is the most developed country in the world, it is hard for the economic and social rights of its citizens to be soundly ensured. In the process of economic recovery, the income inequality continued to be enlarged, the basic living conditions for the homeless people deteriorated, the health care system operated terribly and the education rights of average citizens were violated. In October 2014, the United Nations Special Rapporteurs criticized the unprecedented water shut-offs in Detroit disproportionately affected the most vulnerable and poorest people, violating their right of access to drinking water and other international human rights.

American women and children¡¯s rights were not fully protected. Women were discriminated at workplaces, and domestic violence was prevalent. Each year, 2.1 million American women on average were assaulted by men. Three females were murdered by their partner each day, and four females died each day as a result of abuse. In the U.S. military, reports of female soldiers getting harassed were on the rise, and more faced repercussions for reporting assaults. Millions of American children were homeless. Three children died each day as a result of abuse. School violence and sex assaults were pervasive and gun shootings happened from time to time.

National Security Agency and other intelligence-gathering apparatus of the U.S. for a long time have spied on world leaders and civilians. The U.S. has not ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The U.S. government often takes an evasive or uncooperative attitude toward the criticism of the United Nations Human Rights Council, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights of UN, the council¡¯s working groups and special rapporteurs.

On Civil Rights

In the U.S., problems concerning respecting and protecting civil rights are severe. The nation is haunted by spreading guns, frequent occurrence of violent crimes, the excessive use of force by police that infringed on citizens¡¯ personal rights, as well as wide criticism of illegal eavesdropping that violated citizens¡¯ right of privacy.

Civil rights are threatened by rampant violent crimes. According to the ¡°Crime in the United States¡± released by the FBI, there were an estimated 1,163,146 violent crimes reported to law enforcement in 2013, of which 14,196 are murders, 79,770 are rapes, 345,031 robberies and 724,149 aggravated assaults (http://www.fbi.gov.) There were an estimated 367.9 violent crimes per 100,000 inhabitants in 2013. The Market Watch announced 10 most dangerous cities in America (www.marketwatch.com, November 20, 2014)). The lowest ranking of the ten was Birmingham in Alabama, where 1,345 crimes were reported for every 100,000 residents, while in Detroit, 2,072 violent crimes were reported for 100,000 residents, the highest in the nation in 2013. In 2014, Los Angeles¡¯s overall total of violent crimes was up 7.6 percent by early October, compared with the same time in 2013 (The Los Angeles Times, October 4, 2014). There was about 1,500 violent crimes registered a month in 2014. Meanwhile, gang violence in the U.S. was at an all time high. There were currently an estimated 1.7 million gang members spread throughout the country (www.insidermonkey.com, November 1, 2014).

The rampant use of guns was not contained. Though the FBI had launched federal background checks to block groups like fugitives and felons, from buying firearms, local law enforcement authorities did not report arrest warrants to the database used to screen gun buyers (The USA Today, April 23, 2014). Consequently, tens of thousands of fugitives including those facing serious charges can pass the background checks and bought firearms. Statistics showed that the use of firearms was behind about 69 percent of the murders in the U.S., while for robberies, the figure was 40 percent, and for aggravated assaults, 21.6 percent (edition.cnn.com, September 24, 2014). A total of 2,215 people were shot in Chicago in the first 10 months of 2014 (www.insidermonkey.com, November 1, 2014,). There were 30 shooting cases reported in three days in a week in the city (projects.aljazeera.com, November 19, 2014).

Law enforcement authorities were run with a loose rein, with some even turning a blind eye to fugitives. Police officers were ignoring sex crimes on a regular basis. A report released in November by the inspector general of New Orleans found that of 1,290 sex crime calls for service assigned to five New Orleans police detectives from 2011 to 2013, 840 were designated as miscellaneous, and nothing at all was done (The New York Times, November 13, 2014). Of the 450 calls that led to the creation of an initial investigative report, no further documentation was found for 271 of them. Police and prosecutors were allowing tens of thousands of wanted felons to escape justice merely by crossing a state border (The USA Today, March 12, 2014). A confidential FBI database chronicled 186,873 of these cases, including more than 3,300 accused of sex crimes. A total of 78,878 felony suspects won¡¯t be extradited from any place but neighboring states (The USA Today, March 12, 2014). Police indicated they would not spend the time or money to retrieve the fugitive from another state.

There was excessive use of violence by police. The Wall Street Journal reported on December 3, 2014, that many of the law enforcement agencies did not submit the statistics about killings by police when enforcing laws to the FBI. The report found at least 1,800 police killings took place in 105 police departments between 2007 and 2012. The Associated Press reported on December 7, 2014 that at least 400 deaths happened every year as a result of the law enforcement activities by the U.S. police officers, most of who were not prosecuted. And some police officers had repeated killings on record, though they were investigated for every case. There were 55 police officers who were sued at least 10 times with one being sued for 28 times. Los Angeles Times reported on September 14 that since 2004 a committee reviewed 809 complaints of excessive force or misconduct at the Southwest border, but no police officers had been punished.

In July 17, 2014, African-American resident Eric Garner was choked to death when several white New York police officers were arresting him. Garner, unarmed, put his hands up during the process, saying he couldn¡¯t breathe many times, and then he was grabbed from behind in a chokehold which was banned, until he lost consciousness (edition.cnn.com, December 3, 2014). Darren Wilson, a white police officer, fatally shot Michael Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old African-American, on August 9, 2014 in Ferguson, a town in Missouri. The shootings had generated continued riots in the town (The New York Times, November 25, 2014). After the grand jury of both Missouri and New York decided to bring no charges against the white police officer, massive protests broke out in more than 170 cities (www.mirror.co.uk, November 25, 2014). The protests were cracked down by authorities, with police aggressively arresting citizens on the streets. Some residents in Ferguson were unlawfully arrested by police and were just trying to get home when they were picked up and taken to jail (www.reuters.com, December 2, 2014). Since August 2014, roughly 300 people, including local residents and activists as well as organizers and journalists who traveled to Ferguson, had been arrested amid the protests (The Chicago Tribune, December 1, 2014). ¡°Ferguson incident¡± was a bitter result of the excessive use of force by police in law enforcement. New York Daily News reported on October 8, 2014, that two police officers beat a 16-year-old teenager Karhreem Tribble with grips of fire arms. Several of the teenager¡¯s teeth were broken and his mouth was swollen. In another report the next day, the paper said a police officer swiped 1,300 dollars from a man during a stop-and-frisk. When the man and his sister complained and tried to get his badge number, the officer then pepper-sprayed him and his sister. What was more disturbing, the other officer was just standing around watching. On November 23, 2014, police in the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, shot and killed a 12-year-old boy who was in a playground waving around what turned out to be a replica gun (www.foxnews.com, November 23, 2014 ).

Security authorities were illegally eavesdropping, infringing on citizens¡¯ privacy. The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, an independent federal privacy watchdog, concluded that the National Security Agency¡¯s (NSA) program to bulk phone call records was illegal (The New York Times, January 23, 2014). The Huffington Post reported on February 27, 2014 that U.S. District Judge William Martini dismissed a lawsuit brought by eight Muslims, affirming the New York Police Department¡¯s right to spy on Muslim communities in New Jersey, drawing fire from several human rights groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union (www.huffingtonpost.com, February 27, 2014). The Prism gate continued to reveal that American law firm was monitored by the NSA while representing a foreign government in trade disputes with the United States. On July 16, 2014, Navi Pillay, the then UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, said the mass surveillance programs and related polices by some states were not transparent, creating an interference with privacy at a press conference on the right to privacy in the digital age (www.ohchr.org, July 16, 2014). According to Pillay, coercing private providers into offering massive personal information and data about customers without their noticing or consent was against rules set in documents including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Prisons in the U.S. were crowded and violence and deaths there were increasing. According to a report titled ¡°Prisoners in 2013¡È by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. state and federal correctional facilities held an estimated 1,574,700 prisoners on December 31, 2013, an increase of 4,300 prisoners from yearend 2012 (www.bjs.gov, September 16, 2014). In some places, prisons resorted to early releases because of the surge in prisoners. Across California, more than 13,500 inmates were being released early each month to relieve crowding in local jails ? a 34 percent increase over the last three years. In Los Angeles County, with a quarter of California¡¯s jail population, male inmates often were released after serving as little as 10 percent of their sentences and female prisoners after 5 percent (The Los Angeles Times, August 17, 2014). Due to lax management, violence in prisons was occurring frequently. In 2012, 4,309 inmates died while in the custody of local jails or state prisons (www.bjs.gov, October 9, 2014). The number of deaths in local jails increased, from 889 in 2011 to 958 in 2012. In Rikers Island, a vast New York City jail complex, the use of force by correction officers jumped nearly 240 percent over the last decade since 2004 (The New York Times, March 19, 2014). In the Julia Tutwiler Prison in Alabama, there was a large amount of complaints about the sex abuse and harassment involving guards and supervisors. However, state investigators time and again classified the complaints as unfounded or unsubstantiated and often recommended that the matters be closed without further action (The Washington Post, October 6, 2014).

located between Capitol Hill and the White House and known as a metonym for the country¡¯s lobbing industry ? became the fourth power center in the U.S. after administration, legislation and justice. Behind legalized lobbying was the political manipulation by money and capital. Unfettered corporate political donations became ¡°legalized bribery¡± (www.usatoday.com, October 11, 2013). According to a USA Today report on September 10, 2014, ¡°dark money¡± kept flowing into elections since a landmark Supreme Court decision in 2010 opened the floodgate on political donations. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case on January 21, 2010 that the rules to restrict election campaign expenditures by for-profit corporations was in violation of the Constitution. During the 2014 campaign season, dark money exceeded 53 million U.S. dollars, up from 16 million U.S. dollars in 2010 (www.usatoday.com, September 10, 2014). Everything wrong with campaigns for other offices ? big money, special interest groups and TV attack ads ? also infected judicial election. Spending by outside groups to elect judges increased eight-fold from before the 2002 elections to that leading up to 2012 (www.usatoday.com, October 28, 2014). A legal scholar points out that interest groups are able to influence members of Congress legally simply by making donations and waiting for unspecified return favors. The democratic process has been corrupted or hijacked. In the contemporary U.S., elites speak the language of liberty but are perfectly happy to settle for privilege (Foreign Affairs, September/October 2014).

The voting rights of racial minorities and other groups are under suppression. The voting rights in the U.S. are restricted by economic income, race and other factors, and many citizens were prevented from voting. Preliminary exit polls showed that voters of African origins accounted for 12 percent in the 2014 midterm election, down from 13 percent in the 2012 presidential election. Hispanic voters dropped from 10 percent in 2012 to 8 percent and the proportion of Asian voters also reduced to two percent from three percent (www.usatoday.com, November 5, 2014). In 2014, the Supreme Court said that Texas could use its controversial new voter identification law for the November election. Roughly 600,000 voters, many of them black or Latino, could be turned away at the polls because they lacked acceptable identification (www.dailymail.co.uk, October 18, 2014). Voting rights advocates were up in arms over the socioeconomic and racial factors of these new restrictions (www.upi.com, November 3, 2014). In addition, criminal disenfranchisement removed massive swaths of society from the democratic process as a collateral consequence of conviction. A striking 5.85 million Americans could not vote because of a criminal conviction before. Many disenfranchised citizens lived in Iowa, Kentucky, or Florida ? the three states with extreme policies of disenfranchising anyone with a felony conviction for life (www.aclu.org, November 17, 2014).

The American citizens have increasingly lost confidence in electoral politics. According to most polls, Americans approached the 2014 elections in a sour mood. Two-thirds said the nation had gotten off on the wrong track (www.usatoday.com, November 2, 2014). According to a report by the Huffington Post on December 2, 2014, only nine percent of Americans approved of Congress in the weeks leading up to the midterms elections (www.huffingtonpost.com, December 2, 2014). In contrast to the high costs, general election voter turnout for the 2014 midterms was the lowest in any election cycle since the World War II. As of November 3, 2014, only 36.4 percent of the voting-eligible population cast ballots. Indiana had the lowest turnout rate, with just 28 percent of eligible voters participating (www.washingtonpost.com, November 10, 2014).

On Economic and Social Rights

Despite the gradual recovery of the U.S. economy in 2014, unemployment and poverty still threatened the basic right of survival for the U.S. people. The living conditions for homeless people continuously deteriorated; the income and property gaps caused by distribution inequality continued to enlarge; ordinary people¡¯s rights of health and education could not be well ensured as relative resources were more frequently used to serve the rich.

Unemployment posed threat to people¡¯s basic right of survival. According to the figures released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the unemployment rate of the U.S. in January 2015 stood at 5.7 percent, with some nine million people jobless and 2.8 million of them having been unemployed for 27 weeks or longer. The unemployment rate for teenagers (18.8 percent) increased in January (www.bls.gov). Although overall U.S. unemployment has fallen in 2014, seven million Americans could only find part-time positions. The number of people working part-time involuntarily is more than 50 percent higher than when the recession began, and almost 30 percent of involuntary part-time workers were unemployed for at least three months in a year (money.cnn.com, November 20, 2014). The unemployment risk forced more people to work on dangerous positions. The BLS data showed that 734 contract workers were killed on the job in the U.S. in 2013, increasing by 35 percent from the 2011 number. A bill known as the Protecting America¡¯s Workers Act has been proposed in every Congress since 2004 but has never made it out of committee (www.wsws.org, October 15, 2014).

Poverty rate remained high. Research showed that over 14.5 percent of Americans (about 45 million) lived below the poverty line in 2013, of whom 27.2 percent were African Americans (about 11 million). About 42.5 percent of the African American single-mother families and 14.6 percent of people aged 65 and above (about 6.5 million) lived in poverty (www.huffingtonpost.com, September 16, 2014; seniorjournal.com, October 17, 2014). The high poverty rate left one in seven Americans relying on food pantries and meal service programs to feed themselves and their families (www.usatoday.com, August 17, 2014). Nearly one in five New Yorkers, 1.4 million people, relied on food pantries and soup kitchens across the city to eat. That represented an increase of 200,000 people in five years (The New York Daily News, March 17, 2014). An estimated 322,300 people in 17 Northeast Florida Counties turned to food pantries and meal service programs to feed themselves and their families, and 29 percent were children under age 18 (www.feedingnefl.org, August 27, 2014). On October 20, 2014, the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and Special Rapporteur on adequate housing of the United Nations voiced their concerns on the cutting-off of water supply for the families that could not pay the water bills in Detroit City, considering it a violation to the right of access to drinking water and other international basic human rights.

The basic living conditions for homeless people deteriorated. Statistics showed that the homeless population reached to over 610,000 in the U.S. in 2014, including high levels of child, youth and veteran homelessness (america.aljazeera.com, May 28, 2014). In recent years, homelessness in New York City has reached the highest levels since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Basic facts about homelessness: New York City, released by the Coalition for the Homeless in November 2014 showed that in September 2014, there were an all-time record 58,056 homeless people, including 24,631 homeless children (www.coalitionforthethomeless.org). An estimated 850 families in Washington D.C. were projected to be homeless in the winter of 2014, a 16 percent increase from the year before (The Washington Post, October 14, 2014). However, the number of cities that prohibit sleeping in vehicles jumped from 37 in 2011 to 81 in 2014. The number that prohibit sitting or lying in public spaces increased from 70 in 2011 to 100 in 2014 (www.usatoday.com, July 16, 2014). In the U.S., 21 cities have managed to pass legislation banning or restricting organizations from sharing food with homeless populations in public places since January 2013 alone, according to a report by the National Coalition for the Homeless (www.theguardian.com, November 30, 2014). The city of San Jose in California is known as one of the world¡¯s most opulent locations, however, San Jose and the surrounding Santa Clara County estimated almost 7,600 homeless people in 2013. In early December 2014, city officials planned to begin shutting down the encampments built by the homeless people along a creek bed. The majority of the people have said they don¡¯t know what they¡¯re going to do (The Los Angeles Times, December 4, 2014).

21 times greater. The 1,217 deadly police shootings from 2010 to 2012 captured in the federal data show that African-Americans, age 15 to 19, were killed at a rate of 31.17 per million, while just 1.47 per million white males in that age range died at the hands of police (www.propublica.org, October 10, 2014). Victims of the high-profile deaths caused by police enforcement in 2014 were all African-Americans. The above-mentioned Ferguson case exposed the feature, gravity and complexity of human rights problems in the U.S. caused by the country¡¯s institutional racial discrimination, highlighting the racial discrimination problem in the law enforcement and judicial system. The protests staged around the U.S. were directed against violent law enforcement and injustice, as well as the underlying problem of racial discrimination. When commenting on the cases in Ferguson and other places, a former senior American official said the U.S. criminal justice system was ¡°out of balance¡± (www.washingtonpost.com, December 4, 2014). Amid sweeping protests against judicial injustice in relevant case, another fatal shooting of an African-American man Rumain Brisbon by a white police officer took place in Phoenix, Arizona. ¡°It gives the impression that it¡¯s open season for killing black men,¡± some comments said (www.usatoday.com, December 4, 2014).

Ethnic minorities are targeted in law enforcement sting operations. The U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives overwhelmingly targeted racial and ethnic minorities as it expanded its use of controversial drug sting operations. At least 91 percent of the people agents have locked up using those stings were racial or ethnic minorities, and nearly all were either black or Hispanic (www.usatoday.com, July, 20, 2014). Just under a quarter of Boston¡¯s population is black, but black residents are 63 percent of those stopped-and-frisked by the Boston Police Department (www.washingtonpost.com, October 8, 2014). African-Americans are far more likely to be arrested than any other racial group in the U.S. More than 1,581 police departments across the U.S. arrest African-American people at rates over three times higher than people of other races. At least 70 departments arrested African-Americans at a rate 10 times higher than people who are not black. According to reports submitted by Dearborn police, the arrest rate for African-Americans, compared with the city¡¯s population, was 26 times higher than for people of other races (www.usatoday.com, November 18, 2014). According to a study by the Vera Institute of Justice, in Manhattan, race is a statistically significant factor in most of the discretion points in criminal justice procedures, from bail through plea bargaining and sentencing. A law professor with the Harvard University has criticized that ¡°blacks are not yet full citizens¡± and that deep rooted prejudices have ¡°made black people, particularly young black men, presumptive felons outside the boundaries of full citizenship¡± (www.ft.com, August 17, 2014). UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra¡¯ad Al Hussein, has urged the US authorities ¡°to conduct in-depth examinations into how race-related issues are affecting law enforcement and the administration of justice, both at the federal and state levels¡± (www.un.org, November 25, 2014).

Ethnic minorities are facing with discrimination in employment and payment. Figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics revealed that in October 2014, unemployment rate with white Americans was 4.6 percent whereas the rate with African-Americans was 10.7 percent (Bureau of Labor Statistics report USDL-15-0158 www.bls.gov, February 6, 2015). In Texas, African-Americans, aged 18 to 34, have an unemployment rate of 18 percent, while the rate of young white adults stands at 7 percent (www.houstonchronicle.com, January 6, 2015). Religious discrimination in employment is also serious. Muslims were least likely to be contacted by employers, and atheists and pagans were also unpopular (www.washingtonpost.com, June 18, 2014). Black workers are concentrated in low-prestige and low-wage occupations (www.msnbc.com, August 6, 2014). Major tech companies have begun owning up to the fact that blacks and Hispanics are vastly underrepresented in their ranks. African-Americans and Hispanics are missing on the management teams of major technology companies. A survey found that of the 307 top executives at 22 companies, six are black and three are Hispanic. That¡¯s less than 3 percent (www.usatoday.com, November 13, 2014). Only 1 percent of the Google¡¯s tech workforce is black (www.washingtonpost.com, May 29, 2014). Hispanic, Asian and African-Americans are also subject to prevalent discrimination in salaries. A report from the American Institute for Economic Research revealed that Hispanics earn $16,353 a year less on average than their colleagues who are not Hispanic. In the same high-skilled positions such as computer programmers and software developers, Asians make $8,146 less than whites and blacks $3,656 less than whites. ¡°At every point in the hiring process hidden bias trickles in¡± (www.usatoday.com, October 10, 2014).

Poverty of minority groups is worsening. Overall 17 percent of all Americans are Hispanic, but Hispanics are over represented among the poor, making up 28.1 percent of the more than 45 million poor Americans and 37 percent of the 14.5 million children in poverty. In the old age group (65 years or older), Hispanics have the highest poverty rate of any racial or ethnic group. A total of 20 percent of Hispanics in this age group are poor, compared with about 10 percent nationwide (www.pewresearch.org, September 19, 2014). Nearly 60 percent of shelter residents are minorities with African Americans three times more likely to be homeless compared to the overall U.S. population. Black children under age 5 are 29 times more likely to end up in an emergency shelter than their white counterparts (www.christianpost.com, November 27, 2014).

Racial discrimination sows the seeds for race-related hate crimes. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the number of domestic hate groups rose from 602 in 2000 to 939 in 2013. An annual Justice Department survey of crime victims found that more than 293,000 hate crimes were committed in 2012. That¡¯s 800 a day. Nearly 20 percent of the hate-crime perpetrators were 17 and younger (www.usatoday.com, April 16, 2014). On April 13, 2014, Frazier Glenn Cross, a 73-year-old white supremacist, shot and killed three people at two Jewish sites of Greater Kansas City (edition.cnn.com, April 14, 2014).

2014 marks the 50th anniversary of the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, only 45 percent of Americans said the U.S. had made substantial progress toward racial equality since the event. A CBS News poll found that 46 percent of Americans said there would always be a lot of prejudice and discrimination (www.pewresearch.org, April 9, 2014).

On Women and Children¡¯s Rights

The U.S. disregarded the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. In the U.S., women¡¯s susceptibility to poverty, workplace discrimination, domestic violence and sex harassment was worrying. The children¡¯s rights to life and health were threatened under the pall of school violence, sex molestation, gun violence, and hazardous work environment.

A large number of women and children lived in poverty. According to statistics, about 42 million women (about one in three American women) and 28 million children lived in poverty or were right on the brink of it (www.time.com, January 13, 2014). One in 30 American children were homeless, and child homelessness increased in 31 states and the District of Columbia, according to a report released by the National Center on Family Homelessness (www.theguardian.com, November 17, 2014).

Women were faced with wage discrimination. Nearly two-thirds of minimum wage workers were women, and these workers often got zero paid sick days. The average woman was paid 77 cents for every dollar a man makes, and that figure was much lower for African American and Latino women; African American women earned only 64 cents and Hispanic women only 55 cents for every dollar made by a white man (www.time.com, January 13, 2014). In virtually every job category, the average woman earned less than the average man. Even in those low-paid jobs that tend to be dominated by women, such as nurses, men earned more (www.thinkprogress.org, April 8, 2014).

Reports of female soldiers getting harassed were on the rise. In an average day in the U.S. military, at least 16 sexual assaults were reported. According to a RAND survey, 13,000 incidents of ¡°unwanted sexual contact,¡± went unreported during the 12 months ending September 30, 2014 (www.usatoday.com, November 7, 2014). According to a report released by the U.S. Department of Defense, there were a total of 5,983 incidents of sexual assaults in the fiscal year ending in September of 2014, up by over 8 percent from the fiscal year ending in 2013 (www.america.aljazeera.com, December 4, 2014). Some 62% of female victims said they faced repercussions for reporting assaults (www.bbc.com, December 5, 2014).

Domestic violence was prevalent. According to data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice, the estimated number of domestic violence incidents per year was about 960,000. Women constituted 85 percent of victims of domestic violence. On average, 3 females were murdered by their partner each day, and 4 females and 3 children died each day as a result of abuse. Each year, 2.1 million American women were assaulted by men (www.statisticbrain.com, September 5, 2014). Since 2014, over 1,000 complaints concerning children in foster care being mistreated in California languished past the deadline for completing the investigations (The Los Angeles Times, September 13, 2014).

Issues of school gun violence and sexual harassment were grave. In the first six weeks of 2014 alone, there were 13 school shootings including one eight-day period in which there were four shootings in K-12 schools (www.everytown.org, February 5, 2014). On the afternoon of January 17, 2014, a boy and a girl, both aged 15, were shot in two school shootings in Philadelphia (Washington Daily News, January 18. 2014). Sex violence in American high schools was astonishing. According to a survey by the American Association of University Women, in a given school year, 58 percent of 7th-12th graders experienced sexual harassment. One in 5 high school girls said they had been sexually assaulted at school, and 1 in 8 high school girls said she had been raped. One expert said the survey had revealed the astounding pervasiveness of this problem (www.america.aljazeera.com, November 14, 2014). A culture of sex violence was casting a pall over American campus, but failed to be dealt with properly by any American higher learning institutions (The Wall Street Journal, September 30, 2014).

Child laborers were engaged in dangerous works. American Labor Law allows juniors to work, as long as his or her parents consent and the work does not directly conflict with school hours. That means, it is perfectly legal for a 12-year-old to work 50 or 60 hours a week in tobacco fields. Based on interviews with 141 child tobacco workers, aged 7 to 17, in the country¡¯s four largest tobacco-producing states: North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia, nearly three-quarters of children interviewed reported feeling sick ? with nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, difficulty in breathing, or other serious symptoms while working in tobacco fields. Many of these symptoms were consistent with acute nicotine poisoning (www.politico.com, September 16, 2014).

On Violations of Human Rights in Other Countries

In the field of international human rights, the U.S. has long refused to approve some core human rights conventions of the United Nations and voted against some important UN human rights resolutions. More than that, the U.S. continued to go even further to violate human rights in other countries, including infringing on the privacy of citizens of other countries with the overseas monitoring project, killing large number of innocent civilians of other countries in drone strikes, and raping and killing locals by U.S. soldiers garrisoned overseas.

The Central Intelligence Agency abused torture. As of December 2014, 136 prisoners remained locked up in the Guantanamo Bay military prison (www.latimes.com, December 8, 2014). As disclosed in the Senate Intelligence Committee report released on December 9, the CIA paid a contractor 80 million U.S. dollars to come up with ways to torture people. To acquire intelligence from suspects of terrorism and extremism, the CIA used brutal methods, such as sleep deprivation, waterboarding, long-term solitary confinement, slamming prisoners¡¯ head against the wall, lashing, death threat and even the appalling ¡°rectal rehydration¡± (www.intelligence.senate.gov, December 3, 2014). Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, a prisoner held by the CIA in Afghanistan, was tortured with water-boarding for 183 times (www.foxnews.com, April 1, 2014). According to CIA records, many agents implementing waterboarding felt sick, wanted to vomit, and some wanted to cry and felt suffocated (www.intelligence.senate.gov, December 3, 2014). Some detainees also underwent sexual assault. Mohamedou Ould Slahi, held in Guantanamo for 12 years without evidence and court trial, published a diary he wrote in prison. According to the diary, published by German weekly Der Spiegel, Slahi suffered from a variety of tortures, including savage beating, starvation, prohibition of prayer and sexual abuse (www.spiegel.de, January 20, 2015). The Los Angeles Times said in an editorial that the report showed American post-9/11 shame, as well as stomach-turning details of torture. On April 9, 2014, the U.S. executed Mexican citizen Ramiro Hernandez Llanas without granting him access to consular assistance, a flagrant violation of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. On April 11, 2014, the spokesperson for the UN high commission for human rights slammed the U.S. saying that its execution of foreign nationals while depriving them of the rights of obtaining consular assistance constituted an act of arbitrary deprivation of life, which violated the international law, including the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights approved by the U.S.

Massive overseas surveillance program violated other countries¡¯ sovereignty and civil rights. Ever since Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the PRISM data mining program of the National Security Agency (NSA) in June 2013, more surveillance programs of the U.S. authorities were revealed, and in larger scales. The NSA intercepted phone conversations of 35 world leaders, including Secretary-General of the United Nations, German chancellor and Brazilian president (www.theguardian.com, October 25, 2013). According to a Washington Post report on January 2, 2014, the NSA had a quantum computer development project, coded as ¡°Penetrating Hard Targets,¡± for the purpose of cracking common passwords on the Internet, and stealing encrypted information of government organs, enterprises and banks around the world (www.washingtonpost.com, January 2, 2014). In another project, code-named ¡°Quantum,¡± the NSA installed micro circuit boards or USB storage cards in nearly 100,000 computers around the world, through the channels of ¡°spies, computer makes and unwitting users,¡± obtained data from the computers via receiving radio waves emitted from these devices, and launched cyber attacks on target computers (www.washingtonpost.com, January 14, 2014 and www.huffingtonpost.com, January 14, 2014). Another program, codenamed ¡°Dishfire,¡± collected up to 200 million mobile phone text messages each day from around the globe, while program ¡°Prefer¡± conducted automated analysis on these messages to acquire users¡¯ locations, networks and credit card transaction details (www.theguardian.com, January 6, 2014).

Frequent use of drones producing massive civilian casualties in other countries. Statistics showed that as of November 24, 2014, U.S. drones claimed the lives of 1,147 people in attacks against 41 persons, which meant the death of 28 civilians including women and children to kill every ¡®bad guy¡¯ the U.S. went after (www.theguardian.com, November 14, 2014). In Yemen, U.S. drone bombing and air strikes killed estimated 753 to 965 people, including at least 81 civilians, from the beginning of 2014 to mid April. (www.washingtonpost.com, September 11, 2014).

Frequent violation of human rights by U.S. troops overseas. On July 25, 2014, two American soldiers based near the northern Italian town Vicenza, Gray Lamarcus and Ides McCough, were accused of raping and beating a six month pregnant Romanian woman (www.thedailybeast.com, July 25, 2014). On October 15, 2014, the Philippine police accused American marine Joseph Scott Pemberton of murdering a transgender (www.cbsnews.com, October 15, 2014).

Take its own way on international human rights law. To date, the U.S. still denies that the right of development is a human right. In September 2014, when a draft resolution on the right of development was tabled for a vote at the 27th session of the Human Rights Council, the U.S. once again was the only nation to vote against it (www.ohchr.org, adopted resolution A/HRC/RES/27/2). Though the U.S. signed the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1977, it has not ratified it so far. Though the U.S. claimed it valued the rights of women and children, yet 34 years after it signed the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, it has not ratified the treaty. It has neither ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child 19 years after signing it. Besides, the U.S. remained inactive on foreign debts and human rights to evade its responsibility. It voted against the draft resolution of ¡°the effects of foreign debt on the enjoyment of all human rights¡± at meetings of the UN Human Rights Council in March and September in 2014 respectively (UN document A/HRC/RES/25/16).


Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un's New Year Address

Pyongyang, January 1 (KCNA) -- Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, first chairman of the National Defence Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, made a New Year address on January 1, 2014.
The following is its full text:

Dear comrades,
Dear service personnel of the Korean People's Army, all the people and other compatriots,

Having seen out 2013, a year in which we left a remarkable footprint on the road of the sacred march of the Juche revolution, we are seeing in the new year 2014 filled with confidence in the future and revolutionary self-respect.
Reflecting the boundless yearning and high respect of all the service personnel and people for the great President Kim Il Sung and General Kim Jong Il, I would like first to pay the highest tribute and New Year greetings to them.

I extend tribute also to the martyrs who dedicated their precious lives to national defence and socialist construction last year and New Year greetings to all the service personnel and people who are opening a new era of the country's prosperity following the leadership of our Party.
And greeting the new year I wish that the families across the country would overflow with greater happiness and joy.

My New Year greetings go also to my compatriots in the south, who are fighting for independence, democracy and national reunification, to my compatriots abroad, who are devoting their all to the prosperity of their motherland, and to the progressive peoples of the world and other foreign friends, who love justice and peace.

Last year was a proud year in which the entire Party, the whole army and all the people waged an all-out offensive in support of the Party's new line of developing the two fronts simultaneously and thus achieved brilliant successes in building a thriving socialist country and defending socialism.

Last year our service personnel and people, firmly rallied behind the Party, exalted the brilliance of the ideas and cause of the President and the General and strengthened the political and ideological might of our revolutionary ranks all the more.

Through the political events held in celebration of the 65th anniversary of the founding of the DPRK and the 60th anniversary of victory in the Fatherland Liberation War and in the whole course of last year's struggle, they demonstrated their firm faith and will in holding the President and the General in high esteem and carrying forward their imperishable exploits to posterity.

Our Party's policies of respecting the people and loving them and the people's hearty loyalty of trusting and following the Party as they would do their mothers have become integrated, and thus the blood-sealed ties between them have reached a new, higher stage.

In the seething period of the effort for building a thriving country last year we took the resolute measure of removing the factionalists lurking in the Party. As our Party detected and purged the anti-Party, counterrevolutionary factionalists at an opportune time and with a correct decision, the Party and revolutionary ranks were further consolidated and our single-hearted unity was solidified to the maximum. Through this struggle our Party affirmed that as a party that serves the people, it will fully discharge the honourable mission it has assumed for the times and history and devote its all to the good of the people by enhancing its militant functions and role.

Last year we consolidated our capabilities for self-defence and achieved a brilliant victory in the acute showdown with the imperialists.

The scientists, technicians and workers in the sector of defence industry, by going beyond the cutting edge of military science with steadfast faith and mettle, demonstrated the strength of Songun Korea and rendered great services to consolidating the national defence capabilities. The officers and men of the Korean People's Army and the Korean People's Internal Security Forces, cherishing the spirit of defending their leader and motherland unto death, defended their Party and leader, country and people at the risk of their lives and smashed the reckless moves of the enemy for igniting a nuclear war and their rackets of confrontation with the DPRK at every step, thus highly exalting the dignity and might of their country.

Though the circumstances were harsh and complicated last year, our service personnel and people, by pooling their efforts, achieved great successes in the struggle to build their country into an economic giant and improve the people's standard of living.

An upsurge was brought about in production in several sectors and units of the national economy, and the foundations of the self-supporting economy were further consolidated. The officials and working people in the agricultural sector in particular made innovations in production even under difficult conditions and unfavourable natural climate and thus contributed to improving the people's standard of living.

The service personnel and other builders set up numerous monumental structures for the prosperity of their country and well-being of their fellow people and ushered in a heyday of construction.

Having turned out in response to the Party's appeal to create the "Masikryong speed," they carried out many construction projects, like the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum, Unha Scientists Street, Munsu Water Park and Masikryong Ski Resort, in a short period as befitting the creations in the era of the Workers' Party by displaying burning patriotic enthusiasm and working with devotion. In this way, they showed their country's proud appearance, which is changing with each passing day, and ensured that the people's laughter of happiness could ring out louder. Those who turned out for the reclamation of the Sepho Plateau and other large-scale construction projects tamed nature, overcoming difficulties, thereby opening a breakthrough in realizing the Party's far-reaching plan at an early date.

Also, the sector of culture, including sports and education, made fresh strides last year.

True to the Party's intention of building our country into a sports power, a strong wind of conducting sports swept the country, and our trustworthy sportspeople won gold medals in international competitions and thus highly exalted the honour of their motherland. Preparations for enforcing a universal 12-year compulsory education were successfully promoted, many achievements made in the sector of science and technology, and up-to-date medical facilities introduced for the improvement of medical services for the people. The sector of musical art created many famous works of our times, inspiring loyalty in all the service personnel and people and encouraging them to wage a dynamic struggle and perform great feats.

The shining victories and successes we achieved last year can be ascribed to the fact that the entire Party, the whole army and all the people, in support of the revolutionary and people-oriented lines and policies of our Party and its wise leadership, waged a heroic struggle with an indomitable faith and will to build a thriving socialist country without fail.

Through last year's struggle we clearly demonstrated that our ideology, our strength and our way are the best and no force can check our sacred cause advancing to accomplish a far-reaching ideal and goal.

I extend heartfelt thanks to all the service personnel and people, who adorned the meaningful year 2013 with eye-opening successes by displaying boundless loyalty to the Party, warm affection for their country and unparalleled self-sacrificing spirit.

Comrades,

The new year 2014 will be a year of grandiose struggle, a year of sea changes, in which we will raise a fierce wind of making a fresh leap forward on all fronts of building a thriving socialist country and thus usher in a golden age of Songun Korea.

Our struggle of this year is a worthwhile struggle to translate the people's beautiful ideals and dreams into reality at an early date and a victors' march leading to the venue of grand festival for celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the glorious Workers' Party of Korea.

In this hope-filled year we should usher in a great heyday in the revolution and construction by quickening the heroic march with enthusiasm and confidence in victory.

"Let us raise a fierce wind of making a fresh leap forward on all fronts of building a thriving country filled with confidence in victory!" -- this is the militant slogan our Party and people should uphold this year.

This year we should ensure that the sectors of agriculture, construction and science and technology hold the torch of innovations in the van and the flames of the torch flare up as flames of a leap forward on all the fronts of socialist construction.

This year is a meaningful one that marks the 50th anniversary of the theses on socialist rural question made public by President Kim Il Sung.

We should clearly prove the validity and vitality of the theses by waging the ideological, technological and cultural revolutions dynamically in the rural areas and bringing about a decisive turn in agricultural production. This year we should keep up agriculture as a major thrust of our effort in the struggle for economic construction and improving the people's standard of living, and concentrate all our efforts on farming. The agricultural sector should proactively introduce scientific farming methods and do farm work in a responsible manner so as to hit without fail the target of agricultural production set by the Party. It should improve animal husbandry and do greenhouse vegetable and mushroom farming on an extensive scale so as to ensure that larger quantities of meat, vegetables and mushrooms are supplied to the people.

We should usher in a new heyday of construction this year.
Construction is an important front for solidifying the foundations of a thriving country and creating bases for the people's happy life. The construction sector should set up world-class structures representative of the Songun era and build many other structures that could contribute to improving the people's living conditions, thus laying firm foundations of the self-supporting economy and providing the people with conditions for a more affluent and civilized life. Construction of power stations in tiers on the Chongchon River, livestock farming bases in the Sepho area, the Kosan Fruit Farm and a waterway in South Hwanghae Province and reclamation of tidal flats and other major projects should be stepped up to be completed on schedule. It is important to push ahead with the construction of dwelling houses and dormitories and construction for improving the conditions and environment for education, and set up cultural and welfare service bases on the highest standard.

This year, too, the service personnel and people should make concerted efforts to build up Pyongyang so that it is more grandiose, and lay out the provinces, cities and counties so that they sustain their respective local features.

Science and technology are a propellant for building a thriving country, and the happiness of the people and the future of the country hinge on their development.

The scientific research sector should open a shortcut to the building of a knowledge-based economy by solving the long-term problems in developing the country's economy and improving the people's standard of living as well as scientific and technological problems arising in the actual situation and by going beyond the cutting edge. All scientists and technicians should achieve high results by skilfully riding the excellent "steed" provided to them by the Party and giving fullest scope to their talents and enthusiasm. By doing so, they can become true patriots who contribute to building a thriving nation. A climate of attaching importance to science and technology should prevail across society, and all officials and working people should diligently learn modern science and technology upholding the slogan of making all the people well versed in science and technology.

We should raise fierce flames of innovations in the vanguard sectors, basic industrial sectors, and all other sectors of the national economy.

The metallurgical and chemical industries are twin buttresses of an economic giant. Developing these industries is a major guarantee for economic construction and improving the people's standard of living. These industrial sectors should hold high the slogan of making them Juche-oriented and modern and launch a vigorous campaign for boosting production by relying on our own raw materials and fuels and on the latest science and technology. In this way they should supply sufficient amounts of steel and various kinds of chemical goods that are needed to reenergize the national economy as a whole and improve the people's standard of living.

We should give definite priority to electric-power and coal-mining industries. While taking measures for generating electricity to the maximum at the existing power stations, we should draw up correct prospective plans for radically easing the strain on electricity supply and exert ourselves to carry them out. It is important to produce more electricity with priority given to hydraulic resources and by using wind, geothermal, solar and other kinds of natural energy. We should proactively increase production in coal mines and drastically solve the problem of rail and other types of transport. The electric-power and coal-mining industries and the rail transport sector should make coordinated innovations and thus give strong impetus to the development of the national economy.

We should direct great efforts to developing light industry which plays a major part in improving the people's standard of living. By stepping up modernization of and introduction of CNC technology into their production lines and increasing the proportion of locally-available raw and other materials, light-industry factories should put production on a normal footing. And all cities and counties should produce various kinds of quality consumer goods in larger amounts by developing local industry in conformity with their specific conditions.

The state should take measures to bolster up the fishing sector. The sector should follow the example of the fishing sector of the People's Army that landed a huge haul of fishes by carrying out the order of the Supreme Commander unto death. By modernizing fishing vessels and implements and launching a dynamic fishing campaign by scientific methods, it should ensure that all ports resound with whistles of vessels returning with full loads. It should also conduct shallow-sea farming on an extensive scale.

We should protect and increase the country's priceless natural resources including underground, forest and marine resources, and conduct an energetic mass-based tree-planting drive to cover all the mountains with thick forests.

All the sectors of the national economy should increase production by tapping all potentials and latent reserves, and at the same time launch a brisk economization campaign. Economizing is precisely production and a manifestation of patriotism. We should intensify the economization campaign throughout society so as to make economical use of every watt of electricity, every gramme of coal and every drop of water. All the people should establish a habit of meticulously managing the country's economy with a high sense of patriotism and attitude as befitting masters.

We should decisively improve the guidance and management of the economy. We should tighten the unified guidance of the economy by the state under the leadership of the Party, enhance the sense of responsibility and creativity of enterprises and encourage all the working people to discharge their responsibility and role as masters of production and management.

We should make a big stride in the construction of culture, including education.

The sector of education should improve the contents, methods, conditions and environment of education as required by the revolution and developing times and bring about a fresh turn in education, including secondary general education. By putting efforts to medical treatment and preventive medicine for promoting the people's health, the public health sector should ensure that the benefits of socialist healthcare system reach the people more closely.

Art and literature are a bugler, a powerful propellant, for the revolutionary advance in building a thriving country. The sector of art and literature should produce large numbers of masterpieces of the times, which are high in ideological and artistic qualities and touch the heartstrings of the audience keeping step with the advance of our revolution and vibrant realities.

We should raise more fiercely the strong wind of conducting sports throughout the country. We should encourage sportspeople to intensify training with a high ambition to become world champions, and splendidly implement the Party's plan of building our country into a sports power by developing sports science and technology and implementing the policy of making sports mass-based.

We should continue to channel great efforts into building up the country's defence capabilities.

Strengthening defence capabilities is the most important of all state affairs, and the country's dignity, people's happiness and peace rest on powerful arms.

We should further develop the People's Army into the powerful revolutionary army of Paektusan that is unfailingly faithful to the Party, the leader, the country and the people. The main link in the whole chain of developing the People's Army is strengthening the company which is the basic combat unit of the army and base of soldiers' life. We should make all the companies elite combat ranks fully prepared politically and ideologically, militarily and technologically and their dear homes overflowing with brotherly affection. By stepping up political and ideological education among service personnel, we should train them to be strong in ideology and faith and ready to defend the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun and the Party Central Committee unto death. They should intensify combat training and launch a brisk movement for becoming crackshots so as to prepare themselves to be a-match-for-a-hundred combatants with excellent marksmanship, strong physique and a high sense of discipline

The Korean People's Internal Security Forces should creditably discharge its noble mission and duty of defending the leader, system and people by thoroughly establishing the Party's command system and revolutionary military climate in it, and the Worker-Peasant Red Guards should intensify combat training and remain fully ready for action at all times.

The sector of defence industry should manufacture larger numbers of modern military hardware of our own style that are light, unmanned, intelligent and of high precision to solidify the self-defence capabilities.

We should further consolidate the political and ideological position of our revolution.

The political and ideological position is a fortress that decides the victory and failure in the battle of defending socialism, and consolidating the revolutionary ranks politically and ideologically is the most important task facing us.

In this significant year, in which we greet the 40th anniversary of the programme of modelling the whole society on Kimilsungism advanced by the great General, we should solidify the Party organizationally and ideologically, train all the members of society to be equipped with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism and cement the single-hearted unity of the revolutionary ranks.

It is imperative to establish the monolithic leadership system in the Party, definitely ensure the purity of Party ranks and improve the militant functions and role of Party organizations. We should intensify ideological education among officials, Party members and other working people to ensure that they think and act at all times and in all places in line with the Party's ideas and intentions with the steadfast faith that they know only the great Comrades Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il and our Party. We should ensure that they approach with political awareness even the slightest phenomenon and element that infringe on the unity of the Party and revolutionary ranks and undermine their single-hearted unity, and eliminate them in a thoroughgoing way. They should wage a vigorous struggle to stamp out any sort of alien ideology and decadent lifestyle which may undermine our system and thus resolutely smash the enemy's schemes for ideological and cultural infiltration.

In order to make the flames of a leap forward flare up on all fronts of building a thriving socialist country, it is crucial to give fullest play to the mental strength of the masses.

The greatest potential for creation and innovation, the fundamental key to miraculous change, lies in giving play to the mental strength of all the service personnel and people. A sweeping ideological campaign for information and motivational purposes should be undertaken to give free rein to the mental strength of Party members and other working people. All of them should make Kim Jong Il's patriotism part of their mental qualities and apply it in practice, and thus become performers of heroic feats in the worthwhile struggle to build theirs into a socialist country, powerful and civilized.

It is necessary to establish stringent revolutionary discipline and order in all domains of the revolutionary struggle and construction work.

This is an important factor in demonstrating the advantages of collectivism of our society and making a success of all undertakings. All sectors and all units should carry out to the letter the policies of the Party and the laws, decisions and directives of the state, and encourage the officials and working people alike to observe laws, regulations and order with full awareness of being masters of our society and citizens of the DPRK.

Officials should make redoubled efforts to fulfil their duty as leading members of the revolution and faithful servants of the people.

They should organize undertakings in a big way with absolute loyalty to the Party, a high sense of responsibility for their work and fervent zeal, and strive with unflinching perseverance to implement the Party's plans and intentions without fail.

They should regard the people's demands and interests as the absolute criteria for their performance, concern themselves only about doing things as wished by them and to their liking, and do anything in a way beneficial to them. They should be deeply sincere to people's demands and opinions, and live and work as their true servants who devote themselves to their interests at all times.

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the date when President Kim Il Sung wrote his last signature on a historic document concerning the country's reunification.

True to the behests of President Kim Il Sung and General Kim Jong Il, we should make fresh headway in the national reunification movement for this year.

To resolve the reunification issue in keeping with the aspirations and desires of our fellow countrymen, we should reject foreign forces and hold fast to the standpoint of By Our Nation Itself.

The driving force for national reunification is all the members of the Korean nation in the north, in the south and abroad; only when we remain steadfast in this standpoint can we reunify the country independently in line with our nation's interests and demands. To go on a tour around foreign countries touting for "international cooperation" in resolving the inter-Korean relations issue, the one related with our nation, is a humiliating treachery of leaving its destiny in the hands of outside forces. The north and the south should uphold the principle of independence which is one of the three principles for national reunification and has been confirmed in the north-south joint declarations, hold fast to the standpoint of By Our Nation Itself, and respect and implement the declarations with sincerity.

We should make positive efforts to defend national security and peace.

The US and south Korean war maniacs have deployed legions of equipment for a nuclear war in and around the Korean peninsula and are going frantic in their military exercises for a nuclear war against the north; this precipitates a critical situation where any accidental military skirmish may lead to an all-out war. Should another war break out on this land, it will result in a deadly nuclear catastrophe and the United States will never be safe. All the Korean people must not tolerate the manoeuvres for war and confrontation by the bellicose forces at home and abroad but stoutly resist and frustrate them.

A favourable climate should be established for improved relations between the north and the south.

It is heartrending to see our nation partitioned by foreign forces, and it is more intolerable to see one side slinging mud at and showing hostility to the other. This will serve merely as an occasion for the forces who are undesirous of seeing one Korea to fish in troubled waters. It is high time to put an end to such slander and calumny that bring no good to both sides, and they should desist from doing anything detrimental to national unity and reconciliation. The south Korean authorities should discontinue the reckless confrontation with their compatriots and the racket against the "followers of the north," and choose to promote inter-Korean relations in response to the call of the nation for independence, democracy and national reunification. We will join hands with anyone who opts to give priority to the nation and wishes for its reunification, regardless of his or her past, and continue to strive for better inter-Korean relations.

All the Korean people in the north, in the south and abroad should achieve solid unity under the truly patriotic banner, the principle of By Our Nation Itself, and turn out in the nationwide struggle for the reunification of the country. By doing so, they should open up a new phase for independent reunification, peace and prosperity this year.

Last year, in the international arena, the imperialists persisted in interference and war moves threatening the independence of other sovereign states and the right of mankind to existence.

Especially the Korean peninsula, the hottest spot in the world, was in a hair-trigger situation due to the hostile forces' manoeuvres for a nuclear war against the DPRK, which posed a serious threat to peace and security in the region and the rest of the world.

Nothing is more precious for our people than peace, but it is not something that can be achieved if we simply crave and beg for it. We can never just sit back with folded arms and see the dark clouds of a nuclear war against us hovering over the Korean peninsula. We will defend our country's sovereignty, peace and dignity by relying on our powerful self-defensive strength.

Holding fast to the ideals of our foreign policy -- independence, peace and friendship -- our Party and the government of the DPRK will, in the future, too, strive to expand and develop relations of friendship and cooperation with all the countries that respect our sovereignty and are friendly to us, and safeguard global peace and security and promote common prosperity of mankind.

The tasks facing us are gigantic and difficulties stand in our way.
However, our revolutionary cause is sure to emerge victorious as we advance under the great banner of Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism.

Let all of us strive for greater victory in the new year, filled with high ambition and unwavering confidence and firmly united behind the Party with a single heart.